COMMERCIAL STUDY DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT - GAINESVILLE , FLORIDA 4 COMMERCIAL STUDY Planning Division, Department of Community Development Gainesville, Florida September, 1969 Prepared by the City of Gainesville under Contract with the Florida Development Commission. The preparation of this report was financed in part through an urban planning grant from the Department of Housing and Urban Development, under the provisions of Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, as amended. CITYCOMMI S SI O N Dr. Walter Murphree, Mayor-Commissioner Neil Butler Courtland Coll ier Perry C. McGsiff, Jr. Ted Will iams PLAN BOARD Dr. Clayton Curtis, Chairman Harold Bedell Thomas Coward Dr. Clark Hodge Sam Holloway Jack Rutledge Harold Walker CITY MANAGER B . Harold Farmer DEPARTMENT OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT Norman J. Bowman, Director Audrey Wil lingham, Secretary PLANNING DIVISION Richard Kilby Assistant Director David E. Boyd Planner II* Thomas Greenwood Planner I William Neron Planner I V. Miles Patterson Draftsman Jay Badger Draftsman* Louie Wilson Planning Aide Mary Jo Boggs Clerk Typist * Former Employee, no longer on Planning Division Staff. ii TITLE: Commercial Study AUTHOR: SUBJECT: DATE: LOCAL PLANNING AGENCY: SOURCE OF COPIES: HUD PROJECT NUMBER: SERIES NUMBER: NUMBER OF PAGES: ABSTRACT: Planning Division, Department of Community Development, Gainesville, Florida Existing Commercial land Use Comrri3rcial Projections Prel iminary Commercial Land Use Plan September, 1969 Gainesville City Plan Board Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D.C. Department of Community Development, Municipal Building, Gainesville Florida 32601 HUD Regional Office Library, Region III, 645 Peachtree Seventh Building, Atlanta, Georgia 30323 Florida P-54 7 (of 12) 112 Review of population and economic growth trends and projections to 1980. Market analysis delineating the trade area and projecting com- mercial dollar sales and commercial land use needs for the forthcoming decade. Analysis of existing commercial land use and commercial zoning. Anal- ysis of Downtown's problems and recommendations for same. Discussion of strip commercial develop- ment verses planned shopping centers. Goals and principles for future commercial development. Preliminary commercial land use planning with specific discussions and illustrations for improving the socio-economic welfare of several commercial districts and planned shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area. The proposed Commercial Land Use Plan and a summary of recommendations • • • in TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT „ iii LIST OF TABLES vii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS t . viii INTRODUCTION 1 Definitions 1 Major Assumptions 2 URBAN AREA GROWTH 3 Population 3 Dwelling Unit Construction 3 Economic Base 4 MARKET ANALYSIS 6 Trade Area , 6 Urban Area Income 9 Urban Area Income Distribution 10 Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential 10 The 1975 and 1980 Markets 11 EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 16 Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning ... .16 Downtown Gainesville 20 Downtown Traffic Problems 21 Off-street Parking Facilities 23 Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification 23 Parking Mall 25 Taxable Importance of Downtown 28 Strip Commercial Development 31 Shopping Centers 36 A choice of Shopping Center Patterns 38 Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers . . . .40 Recent Trend for Commercial Location 40 by Types of Stores GOALS AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT . . .42 THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN . .47 Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip 47 Commercial Concentrations v TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page Conservation 47 Rehabilitation 47 Central B usiness District 48 Unplanned Commercial Districts 53 Planned Shopping Centers 88 New Shopping Center Justification Through a Market Analysis 88 Time Limit on Site Plan Approval 89 Off-Street Parking and Landscaping 89 Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups 89 Existing Planned Shopping Centers 90 The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A Summary of Recommendations 104 Strip Commercial Areas 104 Shopping Centers 105 Shopping Centers Needed by 1980 105 Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 . . . .110 Conclusion BIBLIOGRAPHY 113 vi LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1. Out of Town Shopping by Gainesville Residents 7 2. Average Income Estimates and Projections 9 3. 1967 Urban Area Household and Group Quarters 10 Income Distributions 4. 1967 Commercial Market Analysis 12 5. 1975 Commercial Projections 14 6. 1980 Commercial Projections 15 7. Existing Commercial Zoning and Land Use 17 8. Non-Commercial Zoning 17 (which allows Commercial) 9. Commercial Land Use 33 10o Factors Favoring Planned Shopping Centers 34 Over Strip and Scattered Commercial Uses 1 1 • Shopping Centers - Generalized 36 12. Shopping Center Standards 92 vii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Illustration Page 1. Alachua County, Gainesville Urban Area, xi and City of Gainesville 2. Dwelling Unit Construction 5 3. Gainesville Trade Area 8 4. Existing Commercial Land Use 18 5. Zoning Permitting Commercial Uses 19 6. Downtown Parking Loop 22 7. Sketch of Semi - Mall 24 8. Sketch of Pedestrian Mall 26 9. Sketch of Parking Mall 27 10. Downtown Gainesville 29 1 1 . Proposed CBD Improvement Plan 30 12. Strip Commercial 32 13- A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns 39 14. Unplanned Commercial Districts 54 15. Planned Shopping Centers 91 16. Pre I imi nary Commercial Land Use Plan Ill viii -1- INTRODUCTION Growth in commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area has followed a familiar pattern common to many cities. As an agricultural trading center for a fairly wide region, the commercial land use pattern which evolved was char- acterized by a tightly developed central core area ( new generally known as the Central Business District or CBD) where ihe farmers from outlying areas could come into town and shop for a variety of goods in a relatively small area. The hub of this core area was the County Courlhouse, which served as ihe focal point for the area. The coming of the automobile led to the now familiar "strip" commercial pattern radiating outward from the CBD along the major traffic arteries, as merchants tried to capture some of the available dollars before they reached "downtown". This trend was accentuated by the growth of commercial activities on major streets adjoining and eventually filling-in along the major streets between the CBD and the University of Florida campus. The automobile also gave rise to another post-war phenomenon, the shopping center. However, unlike many communities wherein the shopping center devel- oped far out into, the suburbs in the center of new residential growth, the first shopping centers in Gainesville were located just outside the CBD (such as the Gainesville Shopping Center and the Murphrys Center) . More recently new centers have ^ocated farther out from the center, but frequently with overlapping service areas with existing commercial areas. Another characteristic of the recent commercial growth has been a proliferation of the strip developments, especially food and service establishments catering in large part to today's mobile , student. Special emphasis and recommendations included in this study are made for the development and redevelopment of existing commercial problem areas as well as standards and principles to guide future commercial growth. The graphical product of this study and its recommendations is known as the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan. This plan will designate anticipated potential "best areas" for future commercial development based upon the analysis and conclusions presented within this and previous studies. Definitions Note should be taken of the following terms of refsrence in this study. Central Business District: is that area containing the retail core as well as the financial and administrative centers of the region. For the purposes of this study, it is that area shown in Illustration 10 on page 29 . Effective Buying Income: is gross income minus taxes. -2- Gross Leaseable Area: is the total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use, expressed in square feet and measured from the centerline of joint partitions and from outside wall faces - abbreviated GLA. Shopping Center: is a group of commercial establ ishments, planned, developed, and managed as a unit related in location, size, and type of shops to the trade area that the unit serves. It provides on-sito parking in definite relationship to the types and sizes of stores. Shopping Districts: are miscellaneous collections of individual stores on separate parcels of land strung along thoroughfare frontages or clustered in a contiguous area with or without incidental off-street parking. Strip Commercial Development: consists of generally unrelated tracts of contin- uous commercial developnent strung out along thoroughfares. Trade Area: is that area from which is obtained the major portion of the con- tinuing patronage necessary for steady support of the shopping area under con- sideration . Major Assumptions While preparing any document which deals with the future, certain con- ditions must be assumed upon which a meaningful analysis can be based. More specifically, for the purposes of this study, the following conditions were as- sumed as given and that they would not change significantly during the planning period to 1980. 1 . No world war or prolonged crises will upset the economy. 2. The Urban Area population will equal or exceed forecast growth. 3. Income levels and purchasing power will continue to increase consistently as in the past. 4. Citizen concern for community problems will continue. 5. No major change will occur in consumer shopping habits. For example, the relative importance of mail order retail sales will not change significantly. URBAN AREA GROWTH A brief summary and analysis of existing and past trends of growth in the Urban Area is introductry in nature but can also serve as a basis for future com- mercial land use planning. An overview of Urban Area population trends, dwelling unit construction, and the economic base will specifically be pre- sented in the following sections. More detailed analysis of existing and anti- cipated Area population and economic base are found in studies recently com- pleted by the Department of Community Development. Population The amount of future commercial land use will be determined by two fac- tors: the number of people to be served and the amount of money they have to spend . The Urban Area has exhibited a steady growth since the end of World War M when returning servicemen, armed with the G. I. Bill, gave a sharp upward impetus to enrollment at the University of Florida. In 1936 the total population of the Urban Area was about 36,000. By 1960 it was estimated^at more than 53,000, and today it is estimated to be in excess of 82,000. Of this amount almost 20,000 are students enrolled at the University. About 13,000 of the 1960 populatipn of 53,000 were students.^ The projections of future popula- tion range from 1 15,000 to 120,000 by 1980. 4f The general population esti- mates and projections as well as other characterists are set forth in the Population Study^c and the Economic Base Study .4f Another prime consideration of commercial land use is the intensity of devel- opment, particularly the density of residential development. In this regard the urban area is, generally speaking, typical of most cities with the highest den- sities near the center and decreasing densities radiating outward. A good illus- tration of this is the fact that the approximate density of Gainesville before the large annexation in 1962 was 7.32 persons per square mile, but only 3.48 after- wards.^9 There are exceptions to this general pattern such as the higher intensity caused by the grouping of apartments around the University and smaller clusters of higher density scattered throughout the Urban Area. Several clusters are re- presented by the mobile home developments, particularly along Archer Road. Dwelling Unit Construction Dwelling unit construction serves as a good indicator of the location of future community facility needs and commercial expansion potential. By examining Illustration No. 2, it is apparent that the most recent growth has taken place in * Note: Numbers to refer to reference sources which are listed in the Appendix. -4- the residential northwest and in the southwest near the University of Florida. Most of the dwelling units built in the latter area are apartments. Other signi- ficant growth has occurred in the areas where the new public housing has been constructed . Economic Base Gainesville's title as the "Universtiy City" is very appropriate because the University of Florida provides the principle foundation for the economy of the area. It has long provided stability to the economy, even in times when other areas were experiencing economic difficulties. Growth of the University has been closely tracked by overall growth in the community. Prospects for the immediate future are for a continuation of this growth. One projection, perhaps slightly optimistic, is for enrollment to reach 34,501 by 1980. Previous studies in this series forecast an enrollment of 31,000 by that date. The University is only one source of governmental employment. Others are the Sunland Training Center with around 1, 100 employees, the Alachua County Public School District, the City of Gainesville and Alachua County, and the Federal Government (with postal employees, the Veterans Hospital, various re- search programs at the University and the U. S. Department of Agriculture),, In total, government at various levels is by far the largest employer in the area. Other base employment is provided by the manufacturing industry, led by the General Electric Plant at Hague and by Sperry Rand. However, less than ten (10) percent of all resident employment is in this category. The second largest type of employment is in services. Approximately 21 percent of all resident employment is in the general category of services, ex- cluding education (which amounts to about 24 percent alone) and private house- hold workers. Another 16 percent are employed in retail trade. All service em- ployees, including education and private household workers account for 50 per- cent of the resident employment. Finally, agriculture and forestry continues to play an important part in the local economy, not so much in terms of the number of people employed, which has diminished over the years, but in terms of the value of the produce grown and marketed. The latter has steadily grown over the years with different farm products assuming the leading role. It is expected that the Gainesville Urban Area will continue in its historical role as the center for this agricultural region. * University of Florida Bureau of Business and Economic Research projection. -6- Without supportafive evidence to the contrary, it is assumed that the estab- lished growth trends of the past will continue in the immediate future. Those include an expanded growth at the University and Medical Center, a parallel growth in service industries and in lecal government, and a proportionate increase in the manufacturing segment. There is some evidence that a growing labor supply, coupled with an active promotional program, will undoubtedly result in an increase in the latter sector eventual ly. Government, especial I y education and services are likely to continue to be the basic foundation of the economy in the immediate years ahead. MARKET ANALYSIS The market analysis is undoubtedly the most critical section of a commercial land use study. This section outlines the present and probable quantity of future commercial land use needed. The results of the market analysis should give logical answers to such questions as: "How much commercial floor space and land area will be needed during the planning period;" and, "What kind of commercial acti- vities have potential for future expansion?" The answers to these and other ques- tions along with certain adopted goals and policies for the community will help shape the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan. The income and spending habits of university students, particularly residents of group quarters, differs substantially from the typical urban area household. Therefore, the estimated income of group quarters residents was deducted from the total Urban Area income and expenditures, and later combined for the totals used in the preliminary plan. The commercial base of the Gainesville Urban Area is second only to the Jacksonville Area in north central Florida. The Gainesville Urban Area pre- sently has approximately 36 acres of gross leaseable building area in commercial developments in shopping centers with, an additional 56 acres of commercial building area located outside the shopping centers. This latter floor area is located in strip and scattered areas. Trade Area Although it is impossible to precisely define within the limited resources of this study, the Urban Area's commercial sphere of influence I ies approximate! y in an area bounded by the communities of Ocala, Cedar Key, Mayo, Lake City, Lawtey, Starke, Keystone Heights, and Palatka (see Illustration No.??). This conclusion is based upon local newspaper circulation and trading areas of the larger department stores. Up-to-date information concerning the total number -7- co < LU < CO Z> o < > Q_ o x o x Q LU LU > Z> CO CO z o CO o LU 0) > c It < CD 2 D p c> D Q_ < CD - D o> Q_ <U CO CD cd cr o Q. 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Although Gainesville presently serves a large north central Florida region, a survey conducted by the Department of Community Development in April of 1967 showed that some Gainesville residents depend upon other commercial cen- ters outside the Gainesville Urban Area for certain types of shopping. Table No. 1 shows this relationship. It is seen from the table that much of the clothing, appliances, and auto- mobiles purchased by Gainesville residents are bought outside Gainesville. In 1967 approximately 5.6 million dollars was spent outside Gainesville for the eleven retail items listed in the table. However, the following analysis shows that many more retail and service dollars are coming into the 'Jrban Area than are leaving the Area. Urban Area Income The most basic estimate in a quantative analysis is the estimate of the income of the study area's population. As was explained previously, separate estimates were made for residents of households and persons living in group quarters. The year 1967 is used as the base year, because it is the most recent year for which reliable data is available. The average Household income estimates and pro- jections for 1967, 1975 and 1980 were prepared in the Economic Base Study^ for the Gainesville Urban Area. The estimated and projected incomes of Uni- versity of Florida students living in group quarters were based on data taken from a study of University student income and expenditures conducted by a class of marketing students under the direction of members of the University of Florida faculty. 10 TABLE 2 AVERAGE INCOME ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS 1967 1975 1980 Average Household Income in $7,965 $9,614 $10,287 Urban Area Average Household Income for 7,360 9,111 9,891 Alachua County Average County Household Income 5,597 6,771 7,245 Outside Urban Area Average Income per Student in 1,800 2,480 2,840 Group Quarters Source: DCD, Economic Base Study. -10- Urban Area Income Distribution The way in which an income unit (household, family, student, etc.) expends its dollar for current consumption is affected by several factors such as the a- mount of income, age of the income unit, geographical location of the income unit, number of members in the income unit, social and economic trends, and by several other factors. Income distribution estimates for Urban Area house- holds were derived from the United States Department of Labor data for the Southern Region. Income distribution estimates for group housing (at University of Florida) were from the University of Florida's Student Income and Expenditure Study 1 u which was conducted in 1967. TABLE 3 1967 URBAN AREA HOUSEHOLD AND GROUP QUARTERS INCOME DISTRIBUTIONS Households Group Quarters Average Income 1967 $7,965 $1,800 Taxes -828(10.' 4%) -25(1.4°/ Effective Buying Income 100.00% 100.00% Food, Total 22.8 29.2 Tobacco 1.9 1.4 Alcoholic Beverages 1.0 1.9 Housing, Total 27.6 30.8 Clothing, Clothing Materials Services 11.2 7.8 Personal Care 3.2 2.7 Medical Care 6.5 3.8 Recreation 4.1 7.1 Reading 0.8 1.0 Education 1.2 5.6 Transportation 17.7 7.9 Other Expenditures 2.0 0.8 Totals 100.00% 100.00% Source: U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and Student Income and Expenditures study. Urban Area Retail Sales and Service Potential The percentage distribution of disposable income (income after taxes) in the above table can further be divided into commercial and non-commercial ex- penditures. By separating non-commercial expenditures ( using a more detailed breakdown than shown above) such as rent and utilities from the total disposable income distribution, it was found that the average Urban Area household spends approximately 70 cents of its disposable dollar for retail sales and services. -11- St udents in group quarters spend somewhat less of their disposable dollar on retail sales and services, spending about 59 cents of each disposable dollar for retail sales and services . Examination of Table 4, " 1967 Commercial Market Anal ysis" indicates that there are six major business groups in which the various business types are found. The first four business groups - "convenience", "service", "comparison", and "others" are generally considered compatible with shopping center development. "Automotive" and "miscellaneous" business groups are generally located in strip and scattered commercial areas. The use of these criteria along with projections of future available income for retail sales and services will provide a quantative basis for the Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan and recommendations. Further examination of Table 4 indicates that the Gainesville Urban Area is retaining approximately 128% of its total available retail sales and service dollar (Column 7). The preceding figure of 128% means that the estimated total amount (Sales Management estimate) of dollars spent for retail sales and services in the Urban Area (includes sales to tourists, businessmen, and to trade area resi- dents living outside the Urban Area) was 28 percent greater than the estimated amount of dollars actually available for retail sales and services from Urban Area Residents. The percentages in Column 7 seem logical except for the estimate for auto dealers (154%), which seems i.igh. Table 1 on page 7 indicates that about 17.5 percent of the dollars available for auto purchases by local area residents went to concerns outside the Gainesville Urban Area. Therefore, an extremely large expenditure for automobiles from outside residents would have been neces- sary to reach the 154% figure. Since many of the small towns in the trade area do not have auto dealerships, this could well be the case though. The other per- centages in Column 7 confirm the general belief that Gainesville Area commercial establishments, taken as a whole, serve as a regional commercial center, although a small percentage of Area residents still prefer shopping elsewhere for certain selected purchases. The 1975 and 1980 Markets Estimates of the amounts of income available to Urban Area businessmen in 1975 and 1980 for retail sales and services are based upon several assumptions: 1 . That Urban Area population will continue to grow steadily from an estimated 75,500 persons in 1967 to 120,340 persons in 1980. 2. That real personal income will continue to increase during the planning period. ' Totol Income before Taxes $ 183,335,000 Tax.. -17,767,000 Total Income after Taxes 165,568,000 Income Ava ilable for Retail Soles and Services ■ ■ ■ ■ 114,251,000 " Estimated Urban Area In- Sales Management Esti- come Available for Retail mate of Retail Sales & Business Business Sales and Services House- Census of Business Esti- Groups Types holds and Group Quarters mate of Dollars Spent for Serv. in the Urban Area TABLE 4 1967 COMMERCIAL MARKET ANALYSIS Theoretical Dollars coming into the Urban Area Percent of Avail- able Dollars Retained in the Urban Area Column Explanations (1) (2) (3) i 4) s (5) Food % 2(71 24,023,000 ♦29,694,000 5,671,000 124 Conven- Drugs 3.9 4,442,000 4, 146,000 - 296,000 94 ience Hardware 1.9 2, 128,000 * 2,022,000 - 106,000 95 Liquor 1.4 1,655,000 * 2,052,000 397,000 124 Subtotal 28. 2 ~>1 ?4R 000 •J £. f t*TU f \J\J\J Of , 7 1 ** , (AfU J , GXX>, UUU TT8 Personal Serv. 4.5 5, 191,000 6,700,000 1 , 509, 000 129 Service Minor Repair 0.9 1,064,000 750,000 - 314,000 70 Subtotal 5.4 6, 255,000 7,450,000 1, 195,000 TJf Gen Merch. 11.3 12,919,000 20,061,000 7,142,000 155 Apparel 7.0 7,963,000 9,173,000 1,210,000 115 Compari- Furn. & Appl . 5.1 c pox C\CY\ j , oZO , \J\A) 7 OOP C\(Y\ I, 77 Of UUU z , 1 / z , uuu 1 17 1 of son Eating&Drinking 6.2 7,054,000 8,394,000 1,340,000 119 Subtotal 29.6 33,762,000 45,626,000 11,864,000 T35" Specialty Stores Art Dealers, Jew- Others elry Stores, Pet 6.6 7, 564,000 9,568,000 2,004,000 127 Shops, etc. not covered under oth- er groupings T27" Subtotal 6.6 7,564,000 9,568,000 2,004,000 Sales & Acces. 15.5 17,725,000 27,372,000 9,647, 000 154 Automo- Auto Repairs 1.7 1,937,000 * 2,983,000 1 , 046, 000 154 tive Gas Stations 5.4 6, 160,000 8,938,000 2,778,000 145 Subtotal 22.6 25,822,000 39,293,000 13,471,000 752 Lumber, Build- ing Mat. , & 3.7 4, 149,000 * 2,993,000 - 1,156,000 72 Mis. Farm Equip. Comm. Rec . 2.9 3,280,000 1,375,000 - 1.905,000 42 Hotel, Motel 1.0 1, 171,000 2,525,000 1,354,000 216 Subtotal 7.6 8,600,000 6,893,000 - 1,707,000 80 TOTALS 100.0 114,251,000 146,744,000 32,493,000 128 CoK Major groupings of commercial business types. The business types found in the "convenience", "service", "comparison", and "others" business groups are generally compatible with and best located in planned shopping centers. "Automotive" and "miscellaneous" business groups are incompatible with Shopping Center Developments and usually locate in "strip" or "scattered" commercial areas. The major retail and service business types. Average distribution of the Urban Area retail sales and ser- vice dollar based upon Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Southern Region and the University of Florida's Student Income and Expenditure study. Estimated dollars available from Urban Area residents for expenditures in the various business types listed. Sales Management's Survey of Buying Power estimates of actual retail sales and the Census of Business estimate of dollars spent for service in the Urban Area. Note: Copyright 1968, Sales Management, Survey of Buying Power; further reproduction is forbidden. Column 5 minus column 4. Column 5 divided by column 4. * Planning Division estimate based upon Sales Management data. -13- 3. That the portion of a person's effective buying income spent on retail sales and services will continue approximately the same. 4. That the Gainesville Urban Area will strengthen its position as the major commercial center of north-central Florida. The projections of Urban Area retail sales and service dollars for 1975 and 1980 are based upon the assumption that the Gainesville Urban Area will continue to serve a larger market area. That is, instead of capturing 128% of the Area's available dollars for retail sales and services, Urban Area commercial establish- ments will capture 133% and 135% of its^ residents' available retail and service dollars by 1975 and 1980, respectively. As is indicated in Table 5, the Gainesville Urban Area is expected to have a total effective buying income (gross income minus taxes) of $236,899,000 in 1975. Of this $161,402,000 will be available from Area residents for retail sales and services. Since the projected amount of retail sales and service dollars to be captured in the Urban Area is $213,947,000 (based on 133% of available retail and service dollars), approximately 52 million retail and service dollars will be netted by the Urban Area from sources outside the Area. The methodology stated in the preceeding paragraph holds true for the 1980 retail sales and service projections. Of the projected $300,668,000 of disposable income for the Urban Area in 1980, $205,387,000 is expected to be locally avail- able for retail sales and services. The Urban Area commercial establishments will capture a total retail and service volume equal to 135% of the local available dollars, or $277, 102,000. This indicates that by 1980 Urban Area commercial establishments should be netting approximately $72,000,000 more than the avail- able local retail and service dollars of Urban Area residents. Theoretically, the Gainesville Urban Area would only require a total of 340.3 acres and 41 1 .8 acres to satisfy its 1975 and 1980 commercial land needs, res- pectively, if all previous commercial development had efficiently used the land which it now occupies. In reality, however, the existing land to building ratio for all commercial development is about 6.3:1 (See Table 9 on page''') versus the 3.0:1 ratio used in modern shopping centers. Several apparent reasons con- tribute to the low intensity use of existing commercial land in Gainesville: 1. Approximately 77% of existing commercial land is in strip and scattered locations, generally associated with wasteful and in- efficient land use. 2. Many commercial establishments exist in buildings once built for residential purposes with a lower intensity of development. * Planning Department estimates. -14- TABLE 5 1975 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS Totol Income Before Taxes ... $ 264,996,000 -28,097,000 Total Income After Taxes 236,899,000 Income Available for Retail Sales 161,402,000 Percent of Ava il- Increase Ex- Annual Dollar Estimated Estimated Urban Area c ble Dollars Expected Retail and Service pected in volume per sq. Floor Area Expected Park- Estimated In- Expected In- Business Business Income Available for to be captured Dollars Expected to Retail foot of Gross Increase ing to Building crease in Park- c rea se i n Pork - Groups Types Retail Sales and Services in Urba n be spent in Urban Salesand Ser- leasable Area needed by Ratio for Future ing Needs by ing & Bui Id ing Area Area in 1975 vices 1967-75 Standard 1 975 Development 1975 Land Use by 1975 (1) (2) (3) (4) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) % $ % $ $/sq.ft. sq.ft. acres acres Food 21.1 34,082,000 130 44,307,000 14,613,000 96 152,000 Drugs 3.8 6,162,000 100 6, 162,000 2,016,000 63 32,000 5.1 Conven- Hardware 1.8 2,860,000 100 2,860,000 838,000 31 27 000 acres 1 o: i 15.3 20.4 ience L iquor 1.5 2,484 000 120 2,981,000 929,000 86 11,000 Subtotal 2875 45,588,000 m Tin nnn JO, O 1 U, UVJU 18,396,000 222,000 Personal Serv. 5.2 8,232,000 130 10,702,000 4,002,000 34 118,000 3.0 Service Minor Repair 0.9 1,430,000 80 1, 144,000 394,000 34 12,000 acres 3:1 9.0 12.0 Subtotal 9,662,000 123 11,846,000 4,396,000 130,000 Gen Merch. 11.4 l ■ j j 28,580,000 8,519,000 60 142,000 Apparel 7.1 11,435,000 120 lo, UUU 4,549,000 60 76,000 8.2 Compar- Fum. & Appl . 5.0 8,021,000 140 11,229,000 3,231,000 53 59, 000 acres 3:1 24.6 32.8 ison Eating&Drinking 6.4 10,257,000 125 12,821,000 4,427,000 55 80,000 Subtotal 29.9 48, 152,000 138 66,352,000 20,726,000 Speciality Stores Art Dealers, Jew 1.7 Others elry, Pet Shops, 6.4 10,269,000 130 13,350,000 3,782,000 50 76,000 acres 3:1 5.1 6.8 etc . not covered under other groupings Subtotal 6A 10,269,000 T3o 13,350,000 ? 7ft? nnn 76,000 Sales & Acces. 15.0 24, 100,000 155 37,355,000 9,VoJ,UUU 03 285,000 10.0 Automo- Auto Repairs 1.7 2,725,000 155 4,224,000 1,241,000 35 35,000 20.0 30.0 tive Gas Stations 5.3 8,697,000 150 13,046,000 4, 108,000 35 117,000 acres 2:1 Subtotal 22.0 35,522,000 154 54,625,000 15,332,000 437,000 Lumber, Build- 1.0 2.0 ing Mat, & Farm 3.4 5,578,000 85 4,741,000 1,748,000 40 44,000 acres 2:1 3.0 Misc . Equipment * * * Comm. Rec. 2.9 4,914,000 60 2,948,000 1,573,000 * * Hotel, Motel 1.1 1,716,000 220 3,775,000 1,250,000 * * * * * Subtotal 12,208,000 ~W 11,464,000 4,571,000 44,000 TOTALS 100.0 161,402,000 133 213,947,000 L~! 1AO C\(\C\ 6/, zUJ,UUU 1,266,000/29.0 acres 76 105.0 Note: All projections of income and income distribution are by the Pi anning Division. * Not Applicable -15- TABLE 6 1980 COMMERCIAL PROJECTIONS Total Income Before Taxes $ 337,684,000 Taxes - 37,016,000 Total Income After Taxes 300,668,000 Percent of Avail- Annual Dollar Estimated Estimated Urban Area able Dollars Ex- Retail and Service Increase Ex- volume per sq. Floor Area Expected Park- Estimated In- Expected In- Business Business Income Available for pected to be spent Dollars Expected to pected in Re- foot of Gross Increase ingto Building crease in Park- crease in Park- Groups Types- Retail Sales & Services in Urban Area in be spent in Urban tail and Ser- leasable Area needed by Ratio for Future ing needs ing & Building 1980 Area in 1980 vices 1967-80 Standard 1980 Development 1967-80 Land Use by 1980 (') (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (81 (91 (10) (11) % $ % $ $ Acres Acres Food 21.1 43,333,000 130 56,333,000 26,639,000 96 278,000 Drugs 3.8 7,874,000 105 8,268,000 4, 122,000 63 65,000 9.7 Conven- Hardware 1.8 3,680,000 105 3 864 000 1 842 000 31 59,000 acres 3:1 29. 1 38.8 ience Liquor 1.5 3, 119, 000 125 3,899,000 1,847,000 86 22,000 Subtotal 28.2 58,006,000 125 72,364,000 34,450,000 424,000 Personal Service Service 5.0 10,232,000 132 13,506,000 6,806,000 34 200,000 5.2 Minor Rep. 0.9 1 , 804, 000 90 1 674 000 874 000 34 26,000 acres 3:1 15.6 20.8 Subtotal 5.9 12,036,000 T26~ 15, 130,000 7,680,000 226,000 Gen Merch. 11.3 23,371,000 157 36,692,000 16,631,000 60 277,000 Apparel 7.1 14,501,000 125 18,126,000 8,953,000 60 149,000 16.1 Compar- Fum. & Appl . 5.0 10,265,000 140 14,371,000 6,373,000 53 120,000 acres 3:1 48.3 64.4 ison Eating & Drinking 6. 3 12,973,000 130 16,865,000 8,471,000 55 154,000 Subtotal 29.7 61,116,666 ITT 86,054,000 40,428,000 700,000 Speciality Store: I Art Dealers, Jew- Others elry Stores, Pet Shops, etc. not 6.4 13,179,000 135 17,792,000 8,224,000 50 164,000 3.8 3:1 11.4 15.2 covered under oth- acres er groupings T35 Subtotal 6.4 13, 179,000 17,792,000 8,224,000 164,000 Sales & Acces. 5.1 30,922,000 155 47,929,000 20,557,000 35 587,000 Automo- Auto Repair 1.7 3,470,000 155 5,379,000 2,396,000 35 69,000 20.4 2:1 40.8 61.2 tive Gas Stations 5.4 11,069,000 155 17, 157,000 8,219,000 35 235,000 acres Subtotal 22.2 45,461,000 155 70,465,000 31, 172,000 891,000 Lumber, Build- Mat & Farm E quipme nt Comm . Rec . Hotel, Motel Subtotal 3.5 7,176,000 3.0 1.1 7.6 6,175,000 2,208,000 15,559,000 88 65 225 98 6,315,000 4,014,000 4,968,000 15,297,000 3,322,000 2,639,000 2,443,000 8,404,000 40 2.0 83,000 acres 83,000 2:1 4.0 6.0 TOTALS 100.0 205,387,000 135 277,102,000 Note: All projections of income and income distribution are by the Planning Division. * Not Applicable 130,358,000 2,488,000/57.2 acres 149.2 206.4 -16- 3. The overall character of Gainesville is associated with less intense land development. It is expected that some of the existing 578 acres of commercial land use will become more intensely used when replacement of existing structures becomes nec- essary. However, projected commercial land needs for 1975 and 1980 will be based upon anticipated increases in retail and service dollars in the Urban Area. Columns 6-11 in Tables 5 and 6 indicate how much additional retail sales and service dollars, gross floor area, parking area, and commercial land will be needed by 1975 and 1980, respectively. Preliminary to the planning stage is the examination of existing commercial land use and commercial zoning. The following sections will give detailed des- criptions of major problems confronting commercial grov/th and their affect upon the community as a whole. By examining existing commercial patterns, trends, and problems, it is hoped that realistic recommendations can be made later in this study to implement the establishment of a healthy and attractive commercial base in Gainesville. Examination of Tables 7 & 8 reveal the following facts: EXISTING COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT Analysis of Present Commercial Land Use and Zoning a. Existing commercial zoning 1,886.0 acres b. Non-commercial zoning (which allows com mercial ) 2,988.8 acres Total allowing commercial 4,874.8 acres c. Existing commercial land use (developed) 578.0 acres The Land Use Analysis for the Gainesville Urban Area showr vhat a substantial surplus of land exists in most of the commercial zoning categories' This is indicated by Table 7. -17- TABLE 7 EXISTING COMMERCIAL ZONING AND LAND USE Zoning Category Used Vacant Zoning Total ity Ar . uo acres 1 1 CIA 1 1 . 96 acres 1 1 .96 acres i ry br 1 o CO C A 52.50 72 o 04 f*!i>.. dm Lity bU L ity a\- 1 a o a. 0. 36 0.36 Lity Bl-Z 1 O OA iz . 90 0. 42 13.32 County BK 42. 79 100. 71 143.50 C ity BK- 1 "7 ZZ / . 66 7.66 /"* ' t D D O City BK-z 124.01 22 . 11 146. 12 City bL 99. 6/ 163.09 262. 76 County BA 8.86 78.32 87.18 City BA-1 121.27 20.37 141.64 v^ity bA-Z 17 A OO i /4 . yy 1 OA AO 1 Z0 . 09 OO C AO z95 . 0b County BW County BH 85.08 604.19 689.27 County MB 15.11 15.11 Totals 712.24* 1, 163.95 1,886.00 * This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is a commercial use or otherwise. Source: DCD: Land Use Analysis, January 1969. Zoning Category City RP City & MS County County MP Totals TABLE 8 NON-COMMERCIAL ZONING (which allows Commercial) Used 91 .29 acres 389.37 107.80 588.46* Vacant 53.84 acres 922.38 1,424.12 2,400.34 Zoning Total 145. 13 acres 1,311.75 1,531.92 2,988.80 * This total includes all uses of commercially zoned land, whether it is as commercial use or otherwise. Source: DCD; Land Use Analysis. -20- The previous tables and mcp s show that the Gainesville Urban Area pre- sently has approximately 1, 165 acres of vacant, commercially zoned land.* Vacant non-commercially zoned land which allows commercial development amounts to an additional 2,400 acres, or a total of 3,565 acres of vacant land with potential for commercial development. As previously stated, there are only 578 acres of commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area at the present time . Summary of Existing Commercial Development 1 . Less than 12 percent of land permitting commercial is developed for that use. 2. More than 73 percent of all land allowing commercial development is vacant. The 27 percent that is developed includes industrial development, residential development and other land uses. 3. Only 25 percent of the total commercially zoned land in the Urban Area is being utilized by commercial establishments (not including non-commercial zoning which allows commercial uses.) 4. Approximately 63 percent of all commercially zoned land is vacant, while 12 percent is being used for non-commercial purposes. 5. Approximately 80 percent of the non-commercial zoning which allows commercial development is vacant. 6. About 5.5 percent of all commercially developed land is non-conforming. Downtown Gainesville Much valuable information was presented in a 1963 publication, Downtown Gainesville., It is not a purpose of this report to analyze the downtown area in depth. It will suffice here to point out trends in downtown development and recommend steps that can be taken to alleviate some of Downtown's ills. In the past twelve years such major shopping centers as the Gainesville Mall, the Westgate shopping complex, and the Gainesville Shopping Center have devel- oped. Several other shopping centers are presently in the planning stages. This trend indicates that much more substantial efforts must be made and encouraged in the direction of Downtown revital ization if it is to sustain a relevant or meaningful position in the retail market. Downtown Gainesvil'e is presently being hurt by the impact of shopping centers and if steps are not taken to stabilize this trend the eventual decay, both economically and socially, of the entire Downtown cou'd ensue. * These figures are as of January, 1969. -21- A beginning to Downtown rcvital ization was made with "Operation Facelift". This program was instituted in 1964 by the Downtown Development Committee of the Chamber of Commerce, merchants, property owners, local architects, and the City to "clean-up, paint-up, fix-up the downtown face for the maximum physical change at the least cost". The specific accomplishments of this program were the refurbishing of store fronts, removal of some large overhanging signs, and the ad- dition of planter boxes along the major Downtown streets. This program generated widespread community interest and generally restated the belief that the Downtown retailing component should be encouraged and preserved. Since the completion of "Operation Facelift", the exodus of retail stores has not lessened, as can be seen by the vacant shops in the Downtown area. However, the expansion of the office sector as seen by such new structures as the Municipal Building complex, the County Courthouse, the Citizens Bank, the Federal Building, and the Certified Public Accountants Building lend credence to the belief that there is a need to preserve and enhance the Downtown area. Retailing and office activities depend upon each other in attracting people to any location, whether in an outlying shopping center or in the Downtown area. The present trend of office expansion in the Downtown area will tend to encourage retail activities, and vice versa, if sev- eral pressing problems of circulation (both pedestrian and vehicular) to and within the Downtown area can be eliminated. Other problems are off-street parking and the overall Downtown atmosphere. Downtown Traffic Problems If the downtown area is to survive the increased competition from new shopping centers, it must solve the circulation problems such as traffic congestion and on-street parking. A major step toward relieving congestion and eliminating on-street parking would be the completion of the proposed parking loop which has been debated since early 1964 (see Illustration No. 6). This circumferential route would substantially relieve the discomfort one presently experiences while trying to find convenient park- ing directly related to business space. Another series of problems relate to the circulation difficulties encountered with-*" in the area of the proposed parking loop. In 1854 wnen Gainesville's streets were originally laid out, no one could foresee a time one hundred years later when the two hundred foot blocks they designed would be a major problem in moving large volumes of traffic. Now, however, the many intersections created by the short blocks often interfere with traffic movement. As traffic volumes increase this problem will become even more pronounced. A second problem which stymies circulation in the downtown area is the poor coordination between traffic signals. Traffic signals should function as both a regu- lating device and a control designed to keep traffic moving smoothly. Downtown Illustration 6 DOWNTOWN PARKING LOOP C.B.D. PARKING LOOP 7////\ PARKING LOTS -23- travel time for shoppers, businessmen, and employees should be kept at a minimum through the coordination of traffic signals. A third problem hindering circulation in the downtown area, while being a definite safety hazard, is the angle parking areas along south First Avenue and east First Street. The problem arises not so much when entering an angle parking stall, but when backing out of the stall. This type of parking movement substantially im- pairs the traffic carrying capacity of a given street, which is its primary function. The street areas now used for angle parking could be used for street widening and/or for implementation of the semi-mall or parking mall concepts discussed later. Off-Street Parking Facilities While better traffic circulation remains a paramount desire of anyone who has driven in the Downtown area, there have been recent indications that there is a shortage of off-street parking during peak hours, in the northeast quadrant. The ultimate solution to the problem of congested Downtown streets caused, in part, by existing on-street parking is the implementation of the proposed Parking Loop with additional off-street parking areas located on the Loop. The Parking Loop will tend to keep the shopping auto out of Downtown and allow the pedestrian greater freedom and safety while shopping or doing business. The gradual discon- tinuance of the dual role of some streets in the Downtown Area in providing both parking and "through" traffic movements will facilitate the consolidation of small blocks, thus unifying the shopping areas into a pedestrian - oriented shopping and business atmosphere (see Illustration No. 11 on page 30). Semi-Mall and Pedestrian Mall Beautification Semi-malls have recently been used successfully in revitalizing depressed com- mercial areas in many American Cities. The concept does not involve street closings nor does it involve as much capital investment as a pedestrian mal I . The semi-mall effect is achieved by widening the sidewalks into the areas of existing on-street parking and landscaping with trees, benches, and attractive displays as is seen in II lustration No. 7. The feasibility of semi-mall beautification in Downtown Gainesville is based upon two assumptions: 1. That the proposed Parking Loop will become a reality. 2. That additional off-street parking will be provided to make feasible the use of previous on-street parking areas for semi - mall beautification . Pedestrian malls have also had tremendous economic and social impacts on many of the Downtown areas of our nation's cities. Commercial activities have been revitalized and expanded in such cities as Kalamazoo, Michigan, Fresno, California, -25- and Appleton, Wisconsin. Gimble's Department Store is building a large store in Downtown Appleton largely as a result of the recent construction of parking ramps and off-street parking facilities, coupled with good pedestrian access via malls and semi-malls. The mall concept could be employed in Downtown Gainesville on several small side streets (see Illustration No. 11). Three important effects of a ped- estrian mall in Downtown Gainesville would be: 1 . Pedestrian malls would create pleasant open space and leisure areas, injecting a sense of tranquilty and pride to persons who are shopping and doing business in the Downtown area . 2. The mall would enhance pedestrian safety and circulation to and from parking areas located on the parking loop. 3. The mall could combine small blocks, making possible the elimination of some Downtown traffic signals. In summary form, the major problems demoting Downtown Gainesville are of a circulatory and functional nature. More specifically they are: A. Not enough well located off-street parking areas. B. Excessive amount of on-street parking areas. C. Lack of coordination between Downtown traffic signals. D. Fragmentation of Downtown into 200 foot square blocks. E. Lack of open space and leisure areas within the Downtown Area. F. General lack of provisions for the separation of pedestrian and auto circulation Downtown. Parking Mall Illustration No. 9 sketches the parking mall concept following this section. The basic concept of a parking mall is the utilization of existing wide streets for the sole purpose of parking automobile. The parking mall prevents "through" traf- fic movements and better utilized short, disfunctional downtown streets. Appropriate landscaping to identify and conceal the parking mall is utilized. Several Downtown streets in Gainesville could be utilized for parking malls, providing low-cost parking near the major business and retail areas. These streets include East First Street and South First Avenue. -26- @[<ETCH ©F PEDESTRIAN MAUL. ILLUSTRATION -27- OKf^TCH OF PARKIN© MAUL ILLUSTRATION 9 -28- Parking malls on Downtown Gainesville streets would tend to consolidate small blocks and encourage pedestrian circulation. A more limited number of improved streets in the retail business core would be used for carrying large volumes of traffic. Taxable Importance of Downtown An effort was made through the City Tax Assesor's Office to compare the im- portance of Downtown, from a tax producing standpoint, to that of some of the newer shopping centers and the City as a whole. A. In 1967, one fourteenth (1/14) or approximately 12.8 million dollars of the City's total taxable land and improvements lay within the shaded area, while this area contained lessthan one hundredth (1/100) of the total area of the City. B. The following percentage breakdown indicates the taxable importance of the six types of land use within the downtown area: 1) Retail 51.5% 2) Office 27.5 3) Transportation & Communications 9.0 4) Residential 7.5 5) Warehouse & Wholesale 2.4 6) Vacant 2. 1 TOTAL 100.0% C. Approximately 6. 1 million dollars or one-half (1/2) of the total taxable value of land and improvements within the downtown area lies inside the proposed parking loop (cross-hatched area). The tax producing value of the three largest shopping centers (Gainesville Mall Fields Plaza, Gainesville Shopping Center, and the Westgate Shopping Complex) can be compared to Downtown. The combined values of these centers was approxi- mately 7.5 million dollars or only 59 percent of the total value of the Downtown area. In addition, because of the tax exempt nature of much of the land and buildings located in and around Downtown (City, County, Federal, churches, etc.) much of the importance of Downtown as a region-serving center have been over- looked in the previous discussion. A recent thesis studying the impact of the office worker on Downtown Gainesville has recommended the creation of a Downtown improvement fund. The improvement fund would be supplied by a fixed percentage of an increase in tax revenues resulting from increased retail sales and subsequent higher land values. L is fund would tend to perpetuate Downtown development. However, substantial capital outlays for Down- town improvements should be based upon a detailed study analyzing the future role of -29- II lustration 10 DOWMTO^^I <3A!nfe:f>villf: PL B ■Z3I BT rtl 9 TH AVE AVE JL 1 16TH PL 3 . 4TM _ AVE j IkigJj t«" !!ave ' «ip hc AVE _.*VEJl_J \U® — ^mm i hi it in 1 1 lL i/tj/Mt/jJrj. ' 111, rVjiAatjiji 3 BE □Dim L 9 11 .it ONi VERSi T> | | « Jl_. □ ED «l r'anrnnrfTr. □ DIE r " NO 2N0 PL AVE 1 1 □ 1 TAX EXEMPT PROPERTIES & IMPROVEMENTS AREA WITHIN PARKING LOOP AREA UNDER CONSIDERATION -31- Downtown Gainesville and the expected cost benefit relationships of specific pro- posed capital improvements. Illustration No. 1 1 is a rendering showing the incorporation of pedestrian malls, semi-malls, parking malls, and the parking loop in Downtown Gainesville. Strip Commercial Development Strip commercial areas consist of shallow tracts of commercial development spread out along heavily traveled thoroughfares. This type of commercial land use is often referred to as "ribbon development", "string street", "shoestring" and by numerous other names. Illustration No. 12 is an example of strip commercial dev- elopment along a major thoroughfare in Gainesville. At least two types of strip and scattered commercial development can be cited in Gainesville: 1) Protrusion along major streets radiating out from the central busi- ness district; 2) Developments along major cross city thoroughfares intersecting the streets radiating from the Central Business District. In the absence of natural or cultural obstacles, the Central Business District of an American city commonly extends itself outward along major radiating traffic arteries. The extent to which the district protrudes, and therefore the beginning point of the strip commercial street, depends on the criteria used for identifying Central Business District types of establ ishments. The Central Business District uses seem to occupy less space in proportion to sales and to depend more on the mass mar- ket than do businesses on the strip commercial streets. It is clear that the services offered are far in excess of the needs of the local residential enclaves adjoining such areas. One of the characteristics of this type of string street is its accessibility from all parts of the City, assured by its proximity to the City's heart. There is also opportunity to serve customers associated with the district itself. It is common to find small wholesale distributors as well as establishments performing service functions for the central business district on this type of strip commercial street. Several of Gainesville's major cross-town thoroughfares are developing strip commercial characteristics, and where they intersect with strip commercial streets radiating from the central business district, a major concentration of commercial activities is occurring. These intersections have often proven adequate as sites for shopping centers, which are a more practical and functional type of commercial land use than strip commercial developments. Unfortunately, Gainesville, like many other rapidly growing American cities, has chosen to concentrate much of its commercial expansion into strip commercial developments. -32- II lustration 12 STRIP COMMERCIAL -33- There are numerous diseconomies to the community associated with strip commercial development. Strip commercial development hampers comparison shopping. When stores are strung out along a thoroughfare, customers are usually- limited to one or possibly two choices of goods. The distances between similar stores makes further comparison shopping impractical. Retail outlets not located in recognized shopping centers in Gainesville generally make less efficient use of their sites. The table below summarizes existing retail land use and land-building ratios. It is seen that the average noncenter- located establishment utilizes approximately 113% more land per square foot of building area than those establishments located in shopping centers. JAbl E 9 COMMERCIAL I AND USE 1 and-Building Land Area Building Area Ratio Establishments in Shopping 5,870,500 1,570,500 3.7:1 Centers Establishments no in Shop- 19,419,500 2,444,500 7.9:1 ping Centers Total Commercial 25,290,000 4,023,000 6.3:1 * All figures in square feet Source: DCD estimates based on Land Use Analysis and special non-residential tax print out., The level of traffic, noise, and bright lights associated with commercial estab- lishments have a particularly detrimental effect on adjacent residential development, especially if no buffering or screening is provided,, The linear pattern of strip com- mercial development exposes more residential structures to this incompatible use than planned and well buffered shopping centers. Several residential areas in Gainesville are literally enclosed by strip commercial development. Some of these areas contain ghetto-like conditions with declining property values and high public service costs, such as police and fire protection. Much of older Gainesville is characterized by two hundred foot blocks. The encouragement of poorly planned strip commercial development accompanied by more curb cuts would seem suicidal. The problems encountered by ft potential cus- tomers exiting from and entering the lanes of traffic in a strip commercial area tend to discourage the use of such establishments. The absence of off-street parking for strip commercial also tends to dampen sales potential. But perhaps most serious, the traffic hazards presented by such developments not only are a detriment to the devel- opment itself, but to the community at large. This is true not only from a safety -34- standpoint but also from the resultant loss of traffic capacity which frequently must be made up by additional lanes or new roads. In recapitulating, strip commercial development tends to limited com- parison shopping, has a higher land to building area ratio, increases traffic congestion and traffic hazards, causes rapid deterioration of abutting resi - dential structures, and frequently necessitates cosl I y improvements 1o the major "strip" thoroughfares. TABLE 10 FACTORS FAVORING PLANNED SHOPPING CENTERS OVER STRIP AND SCATTERED CO/vWERCIAL USES Factors Strip Commercial Economic Land Use Linear, uneconomic use of land Planned Shopping Cp Compact, economical |i land Effect on Real Estate Circulation Strip commercial usually has a depressing effect on continguous residential land. Contiguous vacant areas tend to be held for speculation in the hope of in- creasing values. This makes im- mediate development forbiding. The vacant lots grow up in weeds, having a blighting effect on near- by residential and commercial development. Strip commercial requires the consumer to use the streets to get from one shop to another. Shopping centers can se gate themselves with a strip. They can stabiliz rounding uses and mc!:c more attractive for rosid uses. Consumer uses special in nal walks designed for h safety and convenience Customer Draw- ing Power In strip commercial, the only at- trations of the business to the consumer is its own goods and se rvices. The combined goods and vices of the stores in a shopping center attract c tomers. Safety Strip commercial increases vehic- ular and pedestrian congestion at intersections. Most vehicular and pede: traffic are segregated fro intersections. -35- TABl.F. 10 (Continued) Blight Social Community Costs Haphazard location of driveways increases the points of conflict on busy streets. Normally strip commercial has no definite boundaries. The use of the contiguous land remains un- certain, vacant lots become blighted and the surrounding area also deteriorates. Individual shops may be more con- veniently located for a few. Scattered locations present a more difficult and expensive problem of providing necessary police and fire protection and other community services More traffic lanes must be pro- vided at citizen expense to han- dle traffic due to decreased capacity. Controlled access. Normally shopping centers have some kind of buffer and the boundaries are usually defin- ite and permanent. This leaves less question as to the future development of the sur- rounding area. A single location creates a mere important and centrally located meeting place for the residents of the surrounding neighborhoods. Police and fire protection and other community services can bo more efficiently and economically rendered at less cost to the taxpayer. -36- S hooping Confers Shopping centers now account for about 30% of the total retail sales in the United States even though they only have 12.5% of the total number of stores. ^ Some general rules of thumb based on available statistics indicate the following characteristics based on size. TABLE 11 SHOPPING CENTERS - GENERALIZED GLA in Square Feet Gross Amout Retail Sales Million Dollars Parking Spaces Involved Annual P-tail Sal Per Car .pace 50,000 13 450 6,700 150,000 25 1,200 6,700 250,000 35 2,000 7,000 500,000 50 3,800 8,000 1,200,000 80 6,300 10,000 Source: Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin # 121, 1968 On an average, one acre of land will support 30,000 square feet of parking - parking and floor area being a 3:1 ratio. This type of commercial development is to be encouraged in the future. Land, both that making up the site and the surrounding land, is used economically and strengthens the identity of the sur- rounding neighborhood it is designed to serve. Properly designed shopping centers can do much to encourage good traffic and pedestrian circulation. Planned shopping centers have been developed in Gainesville at a significant rate during the past decade (See Illustration 15 ). Approximately 39% of com- mercial floor space in Gainesville Urban Area is presently in planned shopping centers, while they constitute only 23% of the total land in commercial us-3. Many existing Gainesville centers lack visual appeal due to an absense of trees, malls, proper integration with surrounding usos and general landscaped.^ areas within the center and around the perimeter. The term "asphalt desert" has often been applied to this type of development. In order to improve existing shopping centers and provide logical criteria for future shopping center devel- opments, the following general standards have been established. -37- Although only one or two existing shopping centers are "purebred" and fit a textbook definition, Gainesville's shopping centers have been categorized primarily according to their function in the community. Four distinct types of centers exist in the Urban Area: 1) local convenience centers, 2) neighborhood centers, 3) community centers, and 4) major centers (see Table 12 on Page 92). Local Convenience Centers should be located at the intersections of col- lector streets and along major thoroughfares. Their service radius is about one- half (1/2) mile, serving a minimum of 500 families. Local convenience centers attract some of their customers on foot, while limited off-street parking space is also provided. A convenience grocery store is usually the major tenant along with a few other convenience stores, such as a laundromat, hairdresser, barber shop or small hardware store. Twenty-six local convenience centers are identi- fied and discussed in a later section of this report. Neighborhood Centers cat er primarily to the convenience needs of the neighborhood also and differ from the purely convenience center primarily in size only. Whereas a small self service grocery is typically the major tenant of a local convenience center, a supermarket is generally the major tenant of a neighborhood center. Other typical tenants include drug stores, personal ser- vice stores and most non-comparison type uses. It caters to a larger population of approximately 1,500 or more families and has a service radius of about one and one-half (1 1/2) miles. Most uf its c^tomers arrive by automobile. The latter dictates a location on a major thoroughfare, preferably at the intersection of two thoroughfares or at least the intersection of a major thoroughfare and a collector street. Neighborhood centers should be located centrally to the area they are to serve, which is a neighborhood or equivalent residential area. It is therefore important that they be designed and landscaped in a manner such that they will complement and not be injurious to the surrounding residential area. Gainesville has three centers which are classified as neighborhood and which are discussed in more detail in a following section. Perhaps the best example of a typical neighborhood center is Northgate on 16th Avenue. Community Centers are the first level center which carries comparison shopping goods, and caters to a much larger area than the two previous types of centers. They should have good automobile access from four directions on streets with ampl carrying capacity. The service radius is three to five (3-5) miles serving a minimum of 5,000 families. The major tenants of these centers are a variety store and/or junior department store and one or more supermarkets. Well planned off-street parking should be a characteristic of this type of center. More specifically, landscaping is used to encourage the use of parking aisles instead of allowing the practice of "shortcutting" across semi-vacant "asphalt jungles". The overall character of the center is enhanced when a low buffer, such as a hedge, is used to dampen the effect of large expanses of parking area . -38- There are four shopping centers in the Urban Area which were classified as community centers. None of these could be considered very typical of this type of center by accepted definition. Westgate and Central Plaza, while functioning as community centers, are both small in comparison to national standards. Field's Plaza is a "hybrod" which really serves the total population of the Urban Area, although in volume and size it is more like a community center than any larger center classification. The Gainesville Shopping Center is the largest community center in the Urban Area. Major Centers are the largest centers in an area and should therefore only be located on major highwavs or expressways and should be easily ac- cesible from all parts of the regional trade area. With a service radijs of eight (8) miles or more, such a center would serve Alachua County and perhaps areas in north central Florida outside the County. Designed to serve a minimum of 100,000 persons the major tenants ere one or more department stores, variety stores, comparison shopping stores, and personal service stores, large on-site parking areas are provided for the regional consumer. As before, properly landscaped parking areas and a possible mounding effect can be used to conceal large parking areas and is useful in promoting the desirability of the shopping center and the surrounding land uses. The Gainesville Mall is the only development clas- sified as major center in the Urban Area. A Choice of Shopping Center Patterns. With the exception of the new Gainesville Mall, all shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area have been ouilt in a "strip" pattern (see Illustration 13. This building pattern functions well in a local convenience center or neighborhood center with a limited number of shops, but its apprcpriatness in community and major centers should be investigated. The Gainesville Shopping Center, a community center, stretches in a linear fashion approximately 1,000 feet (about four city blocks) along a major thoroughfare. The two major tenants, a large supermarket and a junior de- partment store are at either end of the "strip". Two shopping characteristics not meant to be found in shopping centers can be observed at this center: 1 . Shoppers have a tendency to use their cars to get from one end of the "strip" to the other, creating congestion and safety hazards within the parking area. 2. Shoppers tend to do less comparison shopping, since the stores are not conveniently grouped. Several other centers in Gainesville have similar problems, but to a lesserextent in most cases. -39- II lustration 13 CHOICE OF SI POPPING CENTER PATTERN U" MALL STRIP CLUSTER -40- The four other basic patterns: the "L ', the "U", the Mall, and the Cluster can be used in most shopping centers. The "L" and "U" can be turned in various directions for optimum site orientation with respect to the site shape and to the surrounding street patterns. Location Tendencies of Existing Shopping Centers There is a definite tendency toward the grouping of shopping centers either next to each other (Field's Plaza and the Gainesville Mall) or within each other's market area. In the case of the location of the Gainesville Mall next to Field's Plaza, the two centers interrelate and form a much larger and more complete shopping center complex which effectively draws from a larger regional trade area. At the present time these two centers depend upon each other, in part, for drn v ig from a broad range of social - economic groups. Their proximity to each other is and should continue to be beneficial. However, as shopping centers concen- trate around a single major intresection, costly traffic congestion and obsolete thoroughfares are the results. The cross traffic between these two centers has created a definite hazard on 23rd Boulevard. In the case of the smaller existing neighborhood centers, their market areas (approximately 3 miles in diameter) overlap substantially. This means that the effected shopping centers cannot exist solely on their market area sales potential but must attract sales from a larger area. This becomes a serious handicap to these centers when a new, well-located shopping center begins to service a portion of their over - extended market area. This leads to the creation of a group of weak shopping centers and over - competition. Recent Trends for Commercial Location by Type of Store An examination of building starts since 1963 indicates that the following type of retail establishments tended to locate in planned shopping centers: . Department and variety stores Food stores . Apparel and accessory stores . Drug and jewelry stores Laundries, beauty, and barber shops Those commercial uses locating predominantly in "strip" or "scattered" lo- cations since 1962 are: Automobile dealers Eating and drinking establishments Indoor commercial amusement businesses -41- Medical, health, and legal services Motels, hotels, and tourist homos Building materials, hardware and farm equipment stores Those commercial uses which did not exhibit a preference for location during 1962-1962 were: Furniture, home furnishings and equipment stores. Finance, Insurance and real estate offices. Summary of Existing Commercial land Use Existing commercial land use in the Gainesville Urban Area util izes about 578 acres. There are presently approximately 1,900 acres of commercial zoning in the Area, 1, 164 acres of which is vacant land. There are an additional 2,909 acres of other zoning which allows commercial development, 2,400 acres of which is also vacant. The overall commercial pattern in Gainesville has taken to sprawl develop- ment with some major thoroughfares lined with "strip development" and intersections of major streets intensely developed with shopping centers. Downtown's problems lie not only with increasing competition from outlying shopping centers, but with an inability to solve its problems of poor circulation and inadequate off-street parking . Efforts must be made now to establish policies and means through which the revitalization and renewal of Downtown and outlying shopping districts can be achieved. Firm policies relating to the future location and development of new shopping districts must be established. -42- GOAI.S AND PRINCIPLES FOR COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT The development of commercial land lias a,roa'ly changed in this country over the years. At one time pedestrian traffic dictated the growth pattern, hut now it is geared almost exclusively to ihe needs and demands of the automobile. While pedestrian movement inside shopping centers and within the CCD are im- portant factors, parking needs, flexibility of site choice resulting from freedom of movement, and one-step shopping are all dominant factors in the dcvclcpment of today's commercial growth patlern. These auto generated characteristics have led to the evolution of the shop- ping center as the principal development pattern of commercial land use. This evolution is far from complete, however, as ceiloin uses have continued to lo- cate along major traffic arteries on individual sites, with their only concession to the shopping center concept being in the form of larger lots to handle more autos than before. This letter type of commercial land use has generally led to the reservation of most land on all major traffic, arteries for commercial development. This reservation, whether actually zoned for commercial use or only held vacant by the owner in hopes of such future use, not only greatlv exceeds any loqical demand for such land, but frequently is ill located to serve the actual demand as development proceeds farther out into the suburbs. In addition, those areas for which there is a demand and on which development occurs often die of self- strangulation as over-development clogs the traffic arteries on which they are dependent. Some more rational pattern of commercial development is essential. To this end the following sections contain certain goals and principles, which if followed and implemented, should go a long way toward achieving a better land use pattern in the Urban Area. Goals for Commercial Development 1. Adequate Supply of Goods and Services The population of the Urban Area has a purchasing power and demand or need for a given level of goods and services which should be met locally to the maximum extent possible. It is the objective of this Plan to assure the fulfillment of this need by providing adequate, convenient sites for the outlets which cater to this purchasing power or need. 2. Varied Sites Suitable for a Variety of Outlets The need for suitable sites to provide for the many varies outlets for goods and services spans a wide range in size and location. It varies from the single use on a major thoroughfare which relies almost exclusively on passerby traffic, such as a tourist facility to a range in shopping centers from the smallest -43- convenience center to the large regional facility serving a even larger area than that considered in this plan. 3. Functional, Safe, Attractive Design and Display Many successful businesses attract attention to themselves through distinctive store design, advertising or display. While individually such displays may not be offensive, when included with others the results have an unsightly, cluttered effect. Commercial centers are also important focal points, usually located on the major thoroughfares of the community. Their appearance is there- fore a community interest which should be considered in the compre- hensive plan. 4. Minimum Conflict With Other Urban Activities Shopping areas are among the busiest places in the Urban Area, with their basic success often measured by the traffic they generate. This level of activity with its attendant noise, odors, dirt, glare and safety hazards frequently conflicts with other uses which have a less intense nature, particularly that of the residential sector. It is therefore a very basic objective of this plan to minimize such conflict. 5. Effective Use and Development of Old Centers Commercial areas, like all other uses, can become obsolescent with age. With such obsolescence come blight with attendant cost not just to the owners of the property but to the community at large. A goal of this plan is to encourage the conservation of such areas in keeping with the old adage that an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. The following are the major premises and principles to be adhered to in future commercial development. Premise: Commercial activities are oriented to the automobile. Principles: 1 . Location Commercial activities will be located on major streets and particularly at the intersections of such major streets and central to their service area. Local access streets by their design and nature should not carry the non- -44- local traffic associated with commercial development. Concentrations of commercial at intersections distributes the traffic to and from such concentrations over tha Jorgest possible street network and is therefore to be desired when these streets are designed to handle such traffic. 2. Access Access to and from commercial sites should be carefully designed and located so as to minimize friction with flow of traffic on the adjacent thoroughfares. All access points on a street by their nature create points of conflict with the flow of through traffic, causing delay, reducing the street capacity, and creating hazards. 3. Parking Commercial activities must be provided with ample parking to satisfy the demands of all customers of that activity. If less parking than needed is provided it is detrimental to the welfare of that activity as well as the general community. Vacant stores resulting from insufficient parking are a blighting influence, and public streets designed to carry traffic can become extremely expensive parking lots. 4. Concentration of Uses Concentration of both similar and complementary uses are encouraged to the extent that such grouping promotes a more efficient, viable and logical use of land. Certain uses frequently lend strength and support to each other when grouped together, and therefore are encouraged, unless such concentrations are at the expense of adequate service to the whole area, or by design or nature become a burden on the area v/here they are located . Premise: Basic conflicts occur where two different uses of land meet, with the extent of such conflict varying with the difference in intensity of each use, aesthetic qualities, the amount of buffering provided between such uses, and many other factors. Principles: 1 . Location Incompatible land uses will not be located adjoining to one another without sufficient buffering to insure the harmonious existence of both uses. -45- 2. Transitional Uses as Duffers When not contrary to any other principle set forth herein, incompatible land uses may be buffered by transitioned uses more compatible with the use on each side; for example, offices or multiple family may be used to separate single family areas from commercial areas. 3. Screening Screening by walls and/or landscaping will be required where other separation is not possible. 4. Layout A rear to rear arrangement between incompatible land uses will be pro- moted in deference to a front to front or front to rear relationship. The latter two shall be avoided whenever possible with a side to rear rela- tionship permitted only where absolutely necessary. Premise: Shopping centers are the principal development pattern in retailing today. Principles: 1 • Encouragement of Shopping Centers Because shopping centers more logically adhere to modern standards in commercial development, particularly in recognizing the importance of the automobile in their design, they are to be encouraged in preference to scattered, unconcentrated and unplanned commercial development. 2. Shopping Center Design and Development Because they are larger, normally a group of stores and not a single use, shopping centers have a greater impact on the community than a single use and therefore, the design of centers including considerations of traffic flow and control, both internally and externally, compatibility with the surrounding uses and the general arrangement of the center must be given proportionate attention before a center is constructed; and likewise, location and market area must be considered and centers not constructed simply to supplant an existing center or because it is a better arrangement of commercial uses. -46- Premise: Not all future commercial activities will be located in planned shopping centers. Principles: 1. Development of Vacant Commercial Land Non-center commercial uses should be encouraged to locateon those vacant parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial. 2. Sites for Marginal Uses The legitimate needs of marginal or so called "incubator" commercial enterprises can best be served by the "fillcring down" process of exist- ing commercial as opposed to opening up new areas to commercial devel- opment . 3. Spread of Commercial The existence of commercial on one corner of an intersection need not dictate the development of all corners with the same or similar use; nor does the existence of commercial on a major thoroughfare dictate that all frontage must be similarly used. Premise: Commercial activities frequently occupy the most conspicuous sites in an area, and are important influences on the impression which others have of that area. Principles: 1 . Appearance The control of signs, promotion of landscaping and overall appearance of commercial areas are legitimate concerns of the general public and will be guaranteed through site plan approval. -47- THE PRELIMINARY COMMERCIAL LAND USE PLAN The Preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan is the community's graphic guide as to how and where future commercial growth should occur. It is not law nor does it necessarily dictate the detailed development of every parcel of land having commercial potential. It is subject to future revisions and reconsiderations via public hearings. In essence, it is meant to be a general public policy plan for commercial development. Conservation and Rehabilitation of Existing Strip Commercial Concentrations The Gainesville Urbanized Area has many distinct commercial concentrations. These consist of both planned shopping centers and concentrations of unplanned strip developments. Some of the latter are still relatively healthy and are located in or are serving stable residential neighborhoods. But even the healthiest of these "strip" commercial districts may begin to feel the impact of the shopping center and its many advantages. These same shopping districts, with their lack of unity, definative boun- daries, off-street parking, and other amenities, are gradually affecting the surrounding residential neighborhoods. With the continuation of the trend in shopping center development and the possibility of Downtown revetal ization, it is only logical to assume that many of these districts cannot continue to prosper unless some program of action is t^iken to improve their competitive position. At the same time the city cannot affort'to reap the ill effects (tax revenue loss, additional cost of surrounding residential neigh- borhood, etc.) resulting from these shopping districts being removed from economic usefulness. Conservation Conservation of a commercial strip area need not be an expensive proposition, compared to other renewal programs. Actions that might be included under conser- vation are: paint-up and clean-up measures, better sign control, coordinated leasing practices based on the compatibility of uses, better traffic control, a con- siderable range of simple remodeling, provision of various amentities, and other items which can be achieved by a local organization and cooperation among mer- chants and owners. Rehabil itation Rehabilitation of a commercial strip involves a more drastic and concerted program. It generally involves a major re-arrangement of the layout of a district, adequately planned and properly located off-street parking facilities, considerable demolition and redevelopment and adjustment of the affected street pattern. In most of Gainesville's problem commercial areas conservation and limited rehabilitation, in the form of providing better access and off-street parking, will -48- be recommended. No major demolition will be required. Sketches of the major commercial strip areas of the community with recommendations for improving some are included in following sections. Central Business District Existing The geographic center of the Central Business District is approximately at the intersection of Main Street and University Avenue, the ordinate streets from which all other streets are numbered in Gainesville. The businesses on the blocks immediate' ly surrounding this intersection are primarily retail outlets using only the ground floor, with the upper floor being used by service establishments generally associated with Downtown,as storage for the main use in the building or as offices. A significant amoun of the floor space is presently vacant. This may be attributed, in large part, to the trer Gainesville and other cities toward shopping center patronage for retail goods. Several office buildings have located on the periphery of the retail core. This trend is evidenced by the existence of NE 1st Street and North Main Street between North 2nd and 8th Avenues. The frontage of SW 4th Avenue is also largely used by offices. Other predominantly non-pedestrian - oriented uses such as auto-sales and services and wholesaling and warehousing have located along University Avenue and Main Street near the edges of the intensely used land within the Central Business District. Governmental operations play a very significant role in Downtown Gainesville. City, County and Federal buildings form a "governmental triangle" in the eastern portion of the Central Business District. The new Municipal Building - Library com- plex and the Federal Building represent recent very significant commitments on the part of government to enhance Downtown Gainesville as a business, governmental, and civic center. The marginal residential areas immediate surrounding the Central Business District are presently mixed with scattered retail outlets and offices. Much of the residential areas in the near southwest and northwest, in particular, are in need of immediate redevelopment. Future It is recommended that the area generally bounded by the proposed parking loop be developed and/or redeveloped with retail outlets and offices which are pedestrian - oriented, which is now this area's predominant role. The existing character of devel- opment in this area, together with the closely related existing off-street parking and recommended off-street parking tied to the loop streets, should foster such a pedestrian oriented role in the future for this portion of the Central Business District. EXISTING LAND USE - 1969 CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT SINGLE FAMILY I j MULTIPLE FAMILY OFFICES COMMERCIAL IHH INDUSTRIAL (wholesale — warehousing! INSTITUTIONAL ( public - semi public ) MtErUCO IY I* CirY OF GAINF.SVII.li UNDt« CONTRACT WITH THl FLO* IDA 0tVtlO»M£NI COMMISSION. IMF. Ftlf- Af ATI ON OHHSMAf WASFINANCIO IN FA*T THIOUCH AN l*»AN PLANNING GIANT FIOM THCOtFAltMf NT Of MOW- ING AND UK KAN MVELO»M(Nt, UNOa IHEFtOVlSIONS OFHCHON 7CI Of IHt HOUSING ACT Of I'M. *S AMtNKO. -^rTTTTTTTW NORTH -51- It is recommended that the frontage on North Main Street north of North 2nd Avenue to North 8th Avenue continue to function as an office sales and service district. It is recommended that in the event of redevelopment of the area west of Main additional depth be secured for the Main Street frontage to facilitate the eventuality of eliminating on-street parking on Main Street. The types of uses recommended for this area are generally low intensity land users requiring only a limited number of ingress and egress points to handle a low volume of traffic. This frontage represents a step down of land use between the parking loop area and the Gainesville Shopping Center area just to the north. It is recommended that the frontage on NE 1st Street continue to develop for office uses to complement the services and activities now characteristic of the Central Business District. Under no circumstances should retail sales in- trude into this predominantly office area. Northeast 1st Street is designated only as a minor street in the Proposed Street Classification System for the Gainesville Area and as such is not designed to handle large volumes of "through" traffic. The area bounded by west 3rd and 6th Streets and North 3rd Avenue and South 2nd Avenue should continue as the location of a mixture of wholesaling, warehousing, transportation, and auto sales and service uses. These uses are not pedestrian oriented and represent a "step down" in land use intensity from the parking loop - oriented shops and offices to future residential redev- elopment areas to the north. The large area designated for offices immediately south of the afore- mentioned area represents a continuation of the office trend already present in this area. The proposed southerly extension of SW 6th Street will make this general area more easily accessible from other areas of Gainesville. This office area provides a land use intensity buffer between the more in- tensely used retail areas to the north and east and the proposed residential redevelopment area immediately south. It is recommended that the frontage along south Main Street continue development and act as an expansion of Central Business District oriented offices, wholesaling and warehousing, with a gradual trend toward light in- dustrial uses adjacent to the South Main Street Industrial Park on the east side of Main Street. These land uses represent a "stepping down" in in- tensity away from the parking loop area allowing South Main Street to carry "through traffic" more easily to and from major concentrations of land uses. The proposed multiple family area abutting the Main Street commercial frontage on the west acts as a buffer betv/een the Main Street uses and the residential area farther to the west. Apartment development is recommended for the designated areas immediately east and south of the Gainesville Sun newspaper plant. These areas front on minor streets which would not allow -52- commercial development or a continuation of warehousing without substantial improvements to the existing streets. In addition to providing a "step down" of intensity away from the South Main Street frontage, they provide a feasible reuse of this land when redevelopment of the marginal structures is necessary. Serious consideration has been given in recent months to the possibility of building a municipal Civic Center, which could be a tremendous asset to a growing city such as Gainesville. To date, no feasibility study has been com- pleted with recommendations for the location of such a site. It is recommended, if a Downtown location were specified in such a study, that consideration be given to redeveloping the area generally east of the Municipal Building - Library complex bounded by University and north 3rd Avenues and east 3rd Street and the Boulevard. This site would blend in well, and tie together, the surrounding governmental activities and Central Business District uses. It is well located with respect to the existing and proposed transportation links and with the area's largest employer and source of most large scale entertainment and educational activities, the University of Florida. Such a Civic Center complex could stimu- late Downtown redevelopment and make the Central Business District area a more fitting example of the progress being made in the "University City". It is recommended that the offices fronting on NE 1st Street and the pub- licly designated land in the northeast quadrant of the Central Business District be buffered from the very substantial single family areas in the near northeast by medium density apartment developments. Much of this area is presently developed with such apartments and single family dwellings converted to apart- ments. The residential area in the near northwest quadrant west of West 1st Street and north of NW 3rd Avenue is recommended for redevelopment. Pre- sently, this area is predominantly occupied by substandard dwellings. It is recommended that redevelopment for residential re-use be considered in the near future . -53- Unplanned Commercial Districts Unplanned commercial districts have developed along most of Gainesville's major thoroughfares. The pace at which this type of development is occurring has accelerated in the past decade. With expected improvements to many of the major thoroughfares, the pressure exerted for this type of development can be expected to continue. Strip commercial development as was mentioned before, effects large areas of abutting and nearby land uses. In the following map, seventeen commercial districts are delineated, most of which include at least one planned shopping center. Two "strip" maps of each individual district have been prepared. The first map shows existing land uses, while the second map shows recommended future development and/or redevelopment of each area. f** ■I III Ma -55- |, NW 13th Street and 6t h 5trooV, North c. r 39th Avenue Existing . This area is characterized by a predominance o r mobile heme sales generally north of NW 45th Avenue. The area to the south is mostly mixed residential with some local convenience sales and services on the major thorough", ' „ A large auto sales and ser- vice center is also located along NW 13th Street. Future The area north from NW 45th Avenue should continue to cater to mobile home sales and services because of the fine transportation links and the availability of large expanses of vacant land. This eventuality would facilitate comparison shopping for mobile homes and would group similar and compatible commercial uses, a goal stated previously. In addition, this sales area is removed from any extensive residential development. The NW 13th Street at NW 39th Avenue intersection should continue to function as a local convenience commercial area. On the east side of NW 13th Street north and south from NW 39th Avenue, it is recommended that a "stepping down" of intensities from retail to office and apartments be implemented. This practice will tend to perpetuate the in- tersection's functional role as a traffic carrier while discouraging the needless "hep- skotching" of commercial away from a major intersection. The residential area surrounding the auto dealer on NW 13th Street is recommended to be developed as single family because of the predominance of existing single family. The frontage south of the auto dealer is recommended to develop for offices to NW 39th Avenue. The area west of this frontage, already predominantly single family, should continue as such. Although the area in the southwest quadrant abuts a busy intersection, replatting with lots backing on NW 13th Street and NW 39th Avenue should make this land acceptable for single family use. The area bounded by NW 13th and 6th Streets and NW 39th and 42nd Avenues, al- ready is predominantly mixed with single family, duplex, and quadraplex developments, and it is recommended to continue as such. The vacant parcels surrounding the service station on the corner of NW 13th Street at 42nd Avenue should be utilized for duplex development as well as the frontage just north to provide a bu c fer to the existing abut- ting single family area which should be preserved. It is recommended that the triangular shaped area of land north of NW 39th Avenue east of NW 6th Street to the railroad continue development as it has in the past. That is, the upper portion of this area should be utilized for v/arehousing, wholesaling, and very light industry. The lower portion is recommended for development of low density (8 Units per acre) apartments to blend in with existing nearby apartments and single family uses. This area is presently subdivided into parcels of varying shapes and sizes with many of the parcels not being serviced by streets. It is recommended that the property owners in this area reach a cooperative agreement in an effort to redevelop and/or replat their land. -56- SINGLE FAM I LY , [sTf/d.| single family - duplex □ MULTIPLE FAMILY OFFICES L.D ] LOW I NSITV, IM.D.J MED. DENSITY, * I H.D.I HIGH L NSITY , [KATh] MOBILE HOME ( LEGEND APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS) -57- COMMERCIAL INDUSTRIAL, r w./w^ wholesale - warehousing V c r< ~yi INSTITUTIONAL (public-semi public), [p] parking (i-EGEISID APPLIES TO REMAINING STRIP MAPS) -58- 2. NW 13th Street (Gainesville Mall Area) Existing This is a regional-serving retail, entertainment, and service complex. The new Gainesville Mall is the largest of the retailing centers while two other retailing complexes are located on opposite corners. Traffic congestion at the intersection of NW 13th Street and 23rd Boulevard has multiplied with recent commercial developments. Future Additional commercial development east of the Gainesville Mall is proposed, however, necessary precautions should be taken to preserve the traffic carrying potential of this busy area. A "stepping down" of inten- sity away from the intersection eastward on 23rd Boulevard is presently apparent and recommended to continue in the plan. The southeast corner of this intersection is presently vacant. It is recommended that a limited intensity retail outlet utilize the corner with office uses "stepping down" away from the corner as buffers. This will lessen congestion at this intersection. A "stepping down" of intensity in the blocks north of the Mall area on both sides of NW 13th Street is shown. Offices and low density apart- ments are indicated. These uses provide a compatible low intensity re- lief to the existing residential development. A buffer of low density apartments is recommended west of Fields Plaza with a natural buffer re- commended for the area between the Mall and Hogtown Creeko A small buffer of low density apartments could be considered as a substitute in this area where there is enough land, but should not cross the natural boundry created by the creek. r EXISTING PROPOSED -60- NW 13th Street - NW 8th Avenue to NW 22nd Avenue Existing This strip area running along NW 13th Street is a mixed regional office and local convenience district with scattered residential uses. Several local convenience retail activities have grouped around the intersection of NW 13th Street and 16th Avenue. Future There is an apparent "stepping down" of intensity along NW 13th Street north of NW 16th Avenue away from both 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard. It is recommended that this pattern be continued on exist- ing vacant parcels in this area because of the presence of the high school and the existing traffic congestion caused by automotive turning move- ments along this section of NW 13th Street. The existing residential development along 16th Avenue is substantial and should be protected against encroaching commercial. It is recom- mended that no further rezoning from residential uses to commercial uses be approved on NW 16th Avenue west of the intersection. Any such rezoning would provide an inroad to strip commercial development. The frontage along NW 13th Street south of 16th Avenue is being utilized to a large degree for offices. The offices are well landscaped and blend well with nearby residential areas. It is therefore recom- mended that this use be continued. Ft is recommenced that the vacaitf parcel west of the Villa Ravine apartments on NW 16th Avenus be developed for low density apart- ment development as a step down to the nearby single family devel- opments. This type of development would blend well with the exist- ing topography and other physiographic features of this parcel. EXISTING PROPOSED -62- NW 13th Street - University Avenue to NW 8th Avenue Existing This commercial area is a mixed non-local retail strip with local conven- ience outlets catering mainly to a University - clientele. The commercial district is flanked on the east by a dilapidated high density residential area and on the west by an area of student occupied multiple family residences. Future It is of paramount importance to decrease the obvious detrimental ef- fects this commercial strip is having upon the surrounding residential uses. Nearly all land fronting on NW 13th Street in this area has been developed, therefore redevelopment, at higher intensities, can be expected in the future. Stepping down of intensities from commercial to apartments to single family is depicted going east and west from NW 13th Street. Recom- mendations regarding street closings and off-street parking are illustrated in the future land use plan. It is recommended that the vacant frontage along NW 13th Street just south of NW 8th Avenue be developed commercially. The existing steep slopes on these parcels, however, present some problems for development. It is recommended that the lower level, with limited 8th Avenue frontage be developed for offices as a "stepping down" of intensity away from 13th Street. It is also strongly recommended that no retail activities in- trude into the office - oriented area north of NW 8th Avenue. The 8th Avenue overpass and the different land use characteristics north of 8th Avenue are logical physical and social bases for limiting retail activities south of 8th Avenue, not to mention the necessity of preventing further congestion of 13th Street which would result from the more intensive com- mercial uses. EXISTING PROPOSED -64- 5. West Univ ersity Avenue - 6th Street to 13th Street Pf!T1 h ^>::^ UNI VERSITY OF KI.OR I DA spin mw^wmjTi w EXISTING Existing This commercial district is a mixed student - oriented, general commercial and office area. Besides containing Santa Fe Junior College, such other tenants as a bank, several offices, retail clothing outlets, drug stores, restaurants, service stations, and other ser- vice outlets have located here. The commercial strip is surrounded on the north and south by a mixture of student - oriented multi - family dwellings and single family homes, with a medical district farther south. Future PROPOSED It would be desirable, if possible, to change the character of this area to lesser intensive uses, such as offices. This is the major east-west traffic artery in the City, linking the two heaviest activity centers - the University and the Central Business District. The present traffic congestion on this artery will undoubtedly continue, which may well cause the area to suffer from competition from other more accessible commercial areas. Possible exclusion of on-street parking on University Avenue will probably be necessary to relieve congestion and to increase capacity of the street. Some redevelopment including street closings and provisions for off-street parking related to these businesses will be neces- sary to stimulate a better utilization of the area and bring economic stability to the area. The future land use plan illustrates some improvements and recommended land use relation- ships for this area which will eliminate much of the traffic congestion on University Avenue a major east-west thoroughfare. -65- EXISTING ; . , rn r — r — r nw 3 rd ave. nc*r ~ WEST UNIVERSITY ir UNIVERSITY OF Florida AVENUE West University Avenue - West 13th Street to West 19th Street Existing This commercial area is almost wholly oriented toward University student patronage A wide variety of local convenience services and goods are offered, ranging from a convenience grocery store to a branch post office. The area immediately north to NW 5th Avenue is predominantly student oriented - multiple family residential in character. Future N W 3RD lSS/l WEST UNIVERSITY AVENU UN I VERSIT Y OF FlOR I DA PROPOSED It is strongly recommended that under no circumstances should additional commercial uses be permitted beyond the University Avenue frontages because the existing street network in the residential area north of University Avenue is insufficient to handle non- residential traffic, and commercial uses unquestionably have a blighting influence on residential uses. If additional land should become available it should be utilized for off-street parking as this is a major problem in the area now. Evidence has shown that students, as well as most other people, use their cars even if the store is within easy walking distance. Eventually the existing parking I es on University Avenue in this area will, out of necessity, be required for moving c Jitional traffic volumes and/or turning lanes. Future development should be of a character to complement the goods and services offered by the University, as well as, the physical make-up of the University structure . -66- SW 2ND AVE V/ — ml ii « i ' IF I rri nmr — i EXISTING PROPOSED 7. Southwest Medical District (Alachua General Hospital) Existing This area represents a large concentration of medical services. There are several vacant parcels of land available for office expansions. University - oriented apartment developments abut the medical area both to the west and south . Future The planned expansion of the Alachua General Hospital at its existing site will strengthen and solidify the district. The continued evolution of this area into a medical district could be encouraged. This grouping of similar and compatible uses is one of the principles stated previously. In addition, the planned extension of SW 6th Street south to SW 16th Avenue should also enhance the area by providing better access. -67- 8. SW 13th Street - Archer Road to Bivens Arm Existing This area has developed as a highway oriented strip commercial district. It also serves the daily convenience needs of a student - oriented population, but largely serves a tourist and transient segment with restaurants and motel accommodations. The commercial strip is flanked by high density apartments along SW 16th Avenue, near Biven's Arm and on the west side of SW 13th Street. There are fine single family residential areas abutting the apartments and commercial areas in several instances. Future A land use plan already adopted for this district designates the area im- mediately south of Archer Road and the Medical Center as an office center complementing and buffering the existing residential uses in the area. This use would act as a "step down" in intensity from the high density apartments a- butting on the south, while providing land for compatible uses adjacent to the existing University and Veterans medical complexes on the west and north. The proposed low density (8 units/acre) apartment land use in the south- west quadrant of the SW 13th Street and Archer Road intersection represents a step down in intensity from commercial on the south to a very busy and critical intersection. This use would also be a continuation of the present single family - low density apartment mix. South of 16th Avenue on the west side of 13th Street the frontage is pre- dominantly developed commercially with high density apartments to the west. It is recommended that east-west access to this area be improved as designated on the adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan. The land just south of the Holi- day Inn on SW 14th Street is recommended for development into medium density apartments which is stepping down from the high density areas to the north there- by decreasing potential traffic congestion in the area. This area will likely be "land-locked" by commercial uses in the future. EXISTING PROPOSED -69- The large parcel of land along the west side of SW 13th Street just above Biven 's Arm is designated for commercial uses. The land is pre- sently zoned shopping center (SC). This frontage, through site plan ap- proval, should be developed with a limited number of access points via service roads. This is necessary to insure this area of SW 13th Street against the congestion now apparent in the SW 13th Street at 16th Avenue area. It is recommended that the land just west of this area be devel- oped for medium density apartments because of the demand for apart- ments in this general area and because of the natural lakeside setting forming a buffer between such a development and the single family resi- dential south and west of the lake. It is recommended that the large parcel of land next to Audubon Park fronting on SW 13th Street and abutting Seaboard Airline Railroad tracks be developed for low density residential use. Its proximity to a fine single family residential area, as well as, the many problems of cir- culation to and from the parcel, dictate a low intensity use. Its close proximity to the SW 9th Road and SW 13th Street intersection and site distance problems from the railroad overpass also prohibits a high traffic volume use. The aforementioned parcel together with the large parcel directly south, which is shown for office use, represent a "stepping down" of intensity in a very high traffic volume and congested SW 13th Street area. The recently adopted SW 13th Street Land Use Plan shows the re- maining frontage on the east side of 13th Street for commercial uses to a point just south of SW 25th Place. Medium density apartment devel- opment is indicated just above Biven's Arm. This is a "stepping down" of use from the commercial just to the north. A "stepping down" with low density multiple family from SW 13th Street east to the single family Kirkwood area is recommended for the area where medium high density multiple family would otherwise abut the single family residential area. In addition several existing natural buffers around the single family are retained. -70- NW 6th Street - 19th Lane to 30th Avenue Existing This is a scattered commercial area with some limited non- local outlets of wholesale vegteable and meats, lumber, offices, etc. There is a secondary local convenience area near NW 28th Avenue. This strip development is surrounded predominantly by a mixture of single family dwellings with a mixture of apartments in some areas. Future It is recommended that only limited retail expansion be permitted in this area because of the close proximity of several large retail con- centrations. As shown on the plan, the retail concentration at the corner of NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard should be buffered from existing single family areas by apartments and offices. This is a stepping down in use and helps to relieve traffic congestion at the intersection and forms a better transition to the single family developments. Low density multiple family is proposed along NW 6th Street from 29th Avenue to 32nd Avenue. Some of this frontage has already been developed as such. A mixture of single family andduplex development is recommended in the areas shown which either abut commercial uses or apartments. This mixture has been proposed only in those areas where sufficient vacant land exist and where the potential for additional sin- gle family residences has waned. The southeast quadrant of the NW 6th Street and 23rd Boulevard intersection presently has substantial apartment development. It is recommended that this development be encouraged because of surrounding non-residential land use on three of four sides. The southwest quadrant should remain basically single family. The existing commercial on the southwest corner should be buffered from sin- gle family by the recommended office and apartment uses as shown. EXISTING PROPOSED -72- 10. NW 6th Street - 12th Avenue to 19th Lane Existing This commercial development has some limited community serving business with auto - oriented and local convenience stores as major drawing points. There is also a supermarket near the intersection of NW 6th Street on 16th Avenue. This intersection is surrounded by a mixture of single family and apartment dwallings. Future The plan shows a "stepping down" of intensity of uses away from the inter- section. This practice not only protects the intersection from needless congestion and future capital expenditure for improvements but serves as a buffer to exist- ing single family residences fronting on NW 6th Street and NW 16th Avenue. The commercial activities in the northwest quadrant of NW 16th Avenue at 6th Street are buffered from single family by low density apartments. A mix- ture of single family - duplex development is recommended as shown because of the existing development and because of the number of vacant parcels on which new single family development is unlikely. A buffer of offices are recommended on the west side of 6th Street north of the commercial at 16th Ave- nue to provide a "stepping down" in intensity away from the intersection. A large medium density apartment development exists north and east of this intersection, filling in a area between NW 6th Street and the elementary school. It is recommended that the remaining parcels in this area are developed in a simi- lar manner. The limited commercial development in the southeast quadrant of this inter- section is presently surrounded by single family dwellings. The apartment trend in this area should be continued in the redevelopment of these areas, at least over to the more solidly developed residential east of 2nd Street The frontage on NW 6th Street in the southwest quadrant is partially utilized for offices. It is recommended that the areas shown continue to develop for office uses. The interior area of this quadrant is basically single family in character and should be encouraged to remain as such. -74- 11. NW 8th Avenue - NW 2nd Street to NW 6th Street Existing This area contains a undefinable mixture of commercial uses - neighborhood to regional in function,. Many of the businesses are poorly buffered from surround- ing residential areas contributing to residential blight. The traffic carrying capa- city of NW 8th Avenue has been severely limited by uncontrolled access in this area. Active planning for the widening of 8th Avenue is underway. Future It is recommended that every effort be made to improve traffic and off- street parking in conjunction with the widening of 8th Avenue between Main Street and NW 6th Street. The large area recommended for wholesaling is presently partially devel- oped as such. It is felt that a continuation and expansion of these uses is desirable to serve the needs of the Gainesville Shopping Center and abutting Central Business District. The continuation of this trend would also tend to eliminate further retail expansion in the area/helping to insure the economic stability of both the Gainesville Shopping Center and the Central Business District. Redevelopment will be necessary because of the blighted conditions south of the 8th Avenue frontage. A stepping down of intensity from commercial on the north side of 8th Avenue to office or multiple family along the south side of 8th Avenue is recommended as a buffer to the lower density residential areas to the south when such redevelopment occurs. The Gainesville Police Depart- ment will utilize the triangular area between the railroad and NW 6th Street. Low density apartments are recommended as a buffer between the proposed warehousing district on the north side of NW 10th Avenue and the single family areas to the north and west. A "stepping down" from commercial uses on the northeast corner of NW 6th Street and 8th Avenue to offices and/or low density apartments is also proposed. -76- North Main Street - 16th Avenue to 23rd Boulevard Existing Substantial commercial development has occurred at the 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard intersections with North Main Street. Most of this development has been of a regional - serving narjre: auto sales and services, an office, etc., although local convenience centers exist near the corners, onboth 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard . Future The predominant trend in the intervening area on Main Street from a point south of 16th Avenue north to 23rd Boulevard has been toward auto sales and services. These large land users require f2wer ingress and egress points onto major streets than many other uses. It is recommended that auto uses continue to locate in this area to provide a concentration or grouping of similar and compatible uses, a principle stated previously. Development as such would make comparison shopping for automobiles much less difficult, while residents would more readily associate auto sales and services with this area. While not specifically Main Street frontage, the extension of NE 2nd Street is expected to stimulate wholesaling and warehousing developments in the area immediately east of the Main Street frontage. A wide dedicated buffer strip has been provided between the single family area abutting on the east and this wholesaling - warehousing area. The recommended stepping down of intensities along 16th and 23rd Avenues away from Main Street is necessary to preserve the traffic handling capacities of these two intersections, while insuring against the possible continuation of strip commercial uses into the surrounding residential areas. On 16th Avenue the Northeast Park and the church and school provide logical easterly limits to com- mercial expansion along this thoroughfare. The Sidney Lanier Elementary School and the petroleum dealership on 16th Avenue west of Main Street provide logical barriers to commercial uses and buffers to adjacent residential uses. On the south side frontage of 23rd Avenue,- offices are recommended to provide a buffer east of Main Street between the commercial uses on Main Street and the residential development to the east. A similar buffer should also be provided on the north side. On the west side of MainSfcieet, the commercial development adjoins an existing and proposed industrial district. -77- Mff M mm i mma i. •X* >2"S "%Vi ; : : : :*: II yy. NW 23RD BLVD !*/////////, EXISTING PROPOSED -78- 13. North Main Street - 7th Avenue to 16th Avenue Existing This area, together with the Gainesville Shopping Center, functions primarily as a sub-regional commercial district. In addition it provides a wide range of local convenience goods and services. The strip area north and east of the Gainesville Shopping Center is a continuation of the auto sales and service trend north on Main Street. Considerable traffic con- gestion exists due to numerous access points onto Main Street in this area. Future It is recommended that there be no further intensification of com- mercial activities because of the close proximity of the Central Business District. The single family area immediately northwest of the Gainesville Shopping Center should remain as such. No inroads of apartments have occurred here, but low density apartments are recommended as a buffer between the wholesaling and single family area. Low density apartments are recommended east of North Main Street as a buffer between the commercial frontage and single family area to the east. The realignment of NE 2nd Street and the existing Northeast Park will provide for a logical termination of commercial uses along NE 16th Avenue. The high rise apartment building for the elderly, together with the recommended low density apartments abutting on the north, will provide a buffer between the existing commercial and the single family residential area to the east. Wholesaling/warehousing uses are recommended west of Main between 8th and 10th Avenues except for the development commer- cial along the frontage at these intersections. This would be a continuation of the trend already established in this and the adjoining area to the west, which was discussed earlier. EXISTING PROPOSED -80- 14. Waldo Road - NE 13th Avenue to NE 23rd Boulevard Existing This area has a conglomeration of unrelated commercial activities ranging from local convenience to regional services. Improvements to Waldo Road and NE 23rd Boulevard are presently underway. The widening of Waldo Road has necessitated the acquisition of much marginal frontage and has provided the opportunity for the orderly redevelopment of the frontage. Future It is recommended that commercial development be limited to Waldo Road at the 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard intersections, and that the area fronting on Waldo Road between 16th Avenue and 23rd Boulevard be developed as low density apartments as shown. This would prevent commercial uses from developing with their rear fronting the existing apartment uses, while providing a stepping down of intensities from the intersections. The dwellings should "back lot" on Waldo Road, fronting existing and proposed apartments and single family on NE 17th Way. In the event that the mobile home park on 23rd Boulevard is "phased out", it is recommended that this area be used for a continuation of ware- housing because the irregularly shaped mobile home park is presently out of context with the existing and proposed land uses for this area,, The scattered commercial along 23rd Boulevard west of Waldo Road should be eliminated. Studies have shown that most industrial firms do not benefit by the close proxi- mity of high traffic volume commercial enterprises and vice versa. The area directly north of Citizen's Field on Waldo Road should continue as a mobile home park with light industry and/or warehousing, as shown, north of the park. The public and semi-public uses provide a buffer to the mobile home park to the south. A low density multi-family buffer is recom- mended on the south side of 16th Avenue between the commercial uses and the existing single family residential farther west on 16th Avenue. -82- EXISTING . NE 8th Avenue - East of Waldo Road Existing This area contains a newly completed, planned local convenience center plus several scattered, marginal commercial outlets. Many of the dwellings in this area are dilapidated while one large church - sponsored, low-rent housing complex has recently been constructed. -83- r ■:•!»,:..,:,., * Vi-i- Future PROPOSED It is recommended that all scattered commercial uses east of NE 17th Terrace be phased out. The commercial uses in this area are dilapidated and incompatible with surrounding residential uses. The remaining commercial frontage should be bolstered by the addition of off- street parking as shown in the plan. The existing warehousing and light industry north along the railroad, some of which is relatively new, provides a basis for a continuation of this usage. Every effort should be made to redevelop the areas north and south of NE 8th Avenue for residential purposes. The large area between NE 10th Avenue and the Sunland Training Center is presently being subdivided for new single family use. -84- J IfiW ■ 1 ingn r— psi rrn b EAST UNIVERSITY AVENUE Kt;. .1 HI [ 'v /J. j m — s 3 CCD H KK ^ff S E 3RD ST EXISTING 16. East University Avenue Near Waldo Road Existing This commercial area contains several local convenience goods and service outlets, but also caters to a larger regional market in many instances. The surrounding residential area is marginal and has been selected as a potential target area for a Federally assisted Concentrated Code Enforcement Program. -85- Future There is a considerable amount of vacant land in this area. It is recommended that some of this land be used for off-street parking. The recommended closing of SE 12th and 14th Streets on the southside of University Avenue will provide additional room for parking and commercial redevelopment in this area. The possible relocation of the railroad from West 6th Street to the Waldo Road area may require additional freight terminal space in this area. It is recommended that such expansion, if needed, be localized in the triangular area on the north- east corner of the intersection of Waldo Road and University Avenue. The commer- cial development at the intersection of South Waldo Road and SE 4th Avenue should be buffered from the existing surrounding single family areas by low density apart- ments. -86- Hawthorne Road - University Avenue to SE 24th Street Existing This commercial area contains scattered commercial uses ranging from local convenience outlets to regional businesses. Many of the businesses are of a non-center character. There are tentative plans for improving this thor- oughfare . Future It is of paramount importance to existing and future commercial devel- opment to provide for good paved off-street parking areas which are well landscaped. It is recommended that there be some relief in the intensity of land use and traffic movements along Hawthorne Road so that the street can function as a thoroughfare carrying "through" traffic. The existing commercial uses on the south side of Hawthorne Road near SE 3rd Avenue should be buffered from single family uses by low density multi- ple family uses. It is also recommended that the frontage east of the nursery be used for apartments to provide relief from the higher intensity commercial uses on either side and to allow for better traffic movements in this area. The future development of the north side of Hawthorne Road will be shaped by the two large existing land users: the School Board and the drive- in theater. It is recommended that the frontage west of the school property be used for offices and low traffic generating commercial in order to allow the intersections of Hawthorne Road and University Avenue and 15th Street to function properly. The frontage immediately east of the school property is recommended for office use. Low density multiple family is recommended on the frontage be- tween the drive-in theater and the office frontage next to the school property. This is similar and compatible to the uses recommended across the street. Sin- gle family uses, already the predominant use away from the frontages on Haw- thorne Road, should be encouraged through sound street and utility develop- ment. -88- Planned Shopping Centers During the rapidly growing past decade, shopping centers have located some- what prematurely and off-center to their market areas. Several large centers have grouped around two or three major intersections, causing serious traffic problems resulting in increased taxpayer outlays for community facilities improvements in and around these areas. Several new shopping centers have been developed with a seemingly indif- ferent attitude toward proper landscaping and buffering from adjacent land uses. Large expanses of off-street parking have been left totally open to the public eye. There has been a lack of pedestrian - oriented open space and amenities. Most existing planned centers have been designed with the stores in a linear orientation. Shops are continuous along several hundred feet of sidewalks, making comparison shopping difficult. Auto transportation within the center for compari- son shopping is a common, however unsafe, occurrence. The incorporation of the following recommendations for the development of future shopping centers would do much to encourage the type of healthy compari- son shopping centers that Gainesville will require to keep the City young and vibrant. New Shopping Center Justification Through a Market Analysis Future development of new shopping centers in the Gainesville Urban Area should be based upon proof that the need and demand for it exists. The deter- mination of a proposed shopping center's likely success or failure and its initial and ultimate size is a necessity to insure the investment of the owner and future tenants. The purpose of the market analysis is two-fold: 1 . To test the market area of the proposed shopping center to determine whether a center could be justified now; and 2. If justified, to size the center in terms of square footage, land area, type and size of stores. The market analysis requires the following steps: 1 . Determination of the trade area of the proposed shopping center; 2. Determination of the number of families now living in the trade area and those estimated to be added to the area over an established period of time; 3. Determination of the income of the families living in the trade area; -89- 4. Total family income for the trade area must be reduced to expendable income for shopping center-type goods and services; 5. The trade area must then be analyzed in terms of competition; and 6. The proposed center must be analyzed in terms of type an d size of stores and volume of business. The market analysis is a necessary pre-requisite for shopping center justification because a new center cannot create new buying power. It can only attract cus- tomers from existing centers and districts and/or capture the increase in shopping center-type expenditures through population growth in its market area. Time Limit on Site Plan Approval Presently, site plan approval of a proposed shopping center is effective for an indefinite length of time. The ownership of the land and the architectural style may change several times over a period of years before the center is actu- ally built. Ordinance changes do not retroactively affect past site plan approval requirements. For example, a site plan approved ten years ago requiring a parking to building ratio of 2:1 cannot be compelled to meet the existing ratio of 3:1 . Other changes in technology often render past site plan requirements outdated or inadequate. A reasonable time limit for shopping center site plan implementation should be set. This specification would not only insure the contemporary adequacy of the development and its ultimate success and longevity, but it would likely lessen the chance of over-speculation in areas already adequately served commercially. The site plan time limit together with market analysis requirements will tend to stem the tide of over-speculation and over competition, resulting in unneces- sary groupings of individual shopping centers and commercial districts in a given trade area. Off- Street Parking and Landscaping The adoption of a minimum off-street parking landscape ordinance would do much to enhance and preserve existing and future commercial developments. The City Plan Board is presently working to adopt such an ordinance. Market Analysis for Other Commercial Use Groups The market analysis field has been extended to land uses other than shopping centers. The market analyst's work may involve the study of a complete range of uses including the location and justification of such varied uses as drive - in -90- theatres, gas stations, auto dealer, and lumber yards. The use of market analyses is also becoming more and more prevalent bacause investment companies require that a market analysis be made to justify their investment of risk capital . Even though the requirement of a market analysis may be limited to shopping centers initially, extreme care should be used in evaluating requests for zoning of other use groups. As soon as practical, the requirements should be extended to all commercial use groups. In the meantime, applicants for zoning should have sufficient evidence of a need for the development of the particular use applied for. The market analyst should work closely with the planning staff to insure the proper correlation of the market area of proposed centers and districts with the market areas of existing shopping centers and districts. If a proper correlation is not achieved, unnecessary displacement of existing or proposed commercial uses may result. Existing Planned Shopping Centers The following illustration shows all existing planned shopping centers. Each center has a number corresponding to the following text material pertaining to each planned shopping center. -92- CN CQ < CO Q < z < I— CO LU I — z LU (J o Q. o x co IU o a LU < LJL - u O O to Z CO < LU o CO o ^ z < LU 5 I CO lu u_ y £ > Q_ O LU C£ CO LU X Q_ CO < UJ O £ o z o Q_ Z 1 c -C o CD • ~ 2 g o E UZ o ' — -t— o o E u CD ° C CD -2 o < *- T3 c ° c — D _Q i- o ft E <u o 5 Q_ < v ^ 8 ° > to . Cl) 1_ o o 2 o CD £2 o C !_ 0) CO E -B O IJ c o £ v O 14- i/> CD _o -£ "5 o o •— u- o o E £ CN o D CN o o CO u CO E TZ I c > c c O CO "5 8 °. £ O CD > 1- *^ 14- <-i c O CD § 2 1 i _Q o E o 4— D < CD — 14- o 4— CO _v •— D E 1— CO CL D CO E .CN o o LO CO o o CO u CO p E I G c CO o CO no I 8 I to LO i— CD .2. cl a x E "J § 8 • — m -» i— r- lo | » ^ O E o < ._ CD S ^ > s— D CL co a II CD 3 CD s-r o CO O CO I CO o a CO CO o o o ■s. LO o CD if c E c 3 i_ E £ E c O CO U V CO >v i I X CO I- .2. x _CD o E o 4- < CO O M_ o CO "c CO E o CO CL Q E ^ o o_ <J _co • — E + CO ™ .- o 9r "> CL i_ O CO g § D Q. CL E -D o c O D O D + LO CN - I O £ E o ^ o E o • — v C O 12 8-£ _c c CO (0 u U •° CD D C D "O c D 4— CO c o > b CD c "c c D 2 D O CO -93- Local Convenience Centers 1. NW 1 6th Avenue at Millhopper Road Existing This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience grocery store as its major tenant. It is located in a large vacant parcel of land zoned shopping center, the remaining portion of which is presently being consi- dered as a hospital site. Future This area has many of the characteristics desirable for the location of a neigh- borhood level shopping center. It is central to a large developing residential area, which is not now conveniently served by such a center. It is also at the intersec- tion of two major streets which service the residential area. At the same time, it is far enough away for other neighborhood centers so as not to detract from their service area. Therefore, it is recommended that in the event the hospital does not acquire the shopping center site that it be considered for development. However, the size is far in excess of what would be needed and alternative uses, perhaps a buffer of low density apartments could be considered. If the hospital does develop, consideration should be given to an alternative site in this general area. 2. State Road 26 - Newberry Road Existing This development is presently a planned local convenience center which is partially vacant. A convenience grocery store is the major tenant. Future It is recommended that until the vacant floor space is utilized no expansion of the convenience functions in this area take place. There is a likelihood that adjacent land will be developed to include offices. However, this center should remain as a local convenience center because of its peculiar location v/ith respect to the thoroughfares and because the existing and planned non-local centers in the area will more than adequately serve the non-local or comparison goods need of the people in this area of Gainesville. Presently, the center suffers from the fact that it is not really convenient to any substantial residential development, but the de- veloping apartment complex across the road will change this situation. -94- 3. West University Avenue at 37th Street Existing This is a local convenience center containing a convenience grocery store, personal services and offices. Future This development should continue to serve a low intensity, local convenience function because of the proximity of the larger non-local commercial developments to the north and east and because of its limited access with respect to a complicated intersection. The presence of adjoining residential developments is also a reason for limiting the intensity of this center. 4. Northwest Corner of West University Avenue at 34th Street Existing The growth of this center has been stimulated by the development of the larger adjoining centers. It functions basically as a local convenience center, although some tenants draw business from a much larger market area. The center is fully de- veloped and contains a meat store, a convenience grocery store, a restaurant, an office, a gas station, and other tenants. Future It is expected that this center will continue to serve basically a local conven- ience function. Because of serious traffic congestion in this area, it is recommended that ingress and egress points to off-street parking be reduced and landscaping incor- porated to buffer parking areas. If possible, it is recommended that a buffer be de- veloped behind this center to protect the existing residential area north of the creek. 5. SW 34th Street at SW 20th Avenue Existing This recently opened local center has a convenience grocery store as its major tenant. It is strategically located to serve several mobile home parks in this area, and is buffered with offices on three sides. Future It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center with some possible expansion of personal services in the future, as the need arises. However, -95- care should be taken i hot this renter not become the stimulus for strip commercial in this area . 6. SW 34th Street at Archer R ood Existing The commercial development at this location presently serves a local conven- ience function with non-local businesses across t he street. There is vacant commer- cially zoned land across the street frcm the existing commercial development. Future This is a strategic intersection in the southwestern quadrant of the Urbnn Area. The surrounding area is rapidly developing in mobile homes and apartments. A neighborhood center with a supermarket could evolve near the existinn local con- venience function as this area develops. This area is reasonable for ihe location of such a center, but care should bo taken thnt it not expand beyond a neighboihoocl center because of the inadequacy of existing streets and its close proximity to the Westgate complex. 7. NW 34th Street, Extended Existing This development is a local convenience center. There is a vast amount of adjacent land commercially zoned for possible future expansion. Future It is recommended that the local convenience center gradually evolve into a neighborhood center with a supermarket as the major tenant if sufficient residential development continues in this area. No larger center than a neighborhood is ad- vised, because it would not be centrally located to a larger service area, nor on a adequate street network. 8. NW 13th Street Near 41st Avenue Existing This is a local convenience center serving a limited residential area. The surrounding land is mostly developed. Future It Is recommended that this center remain a local convenience function in keeping -96- with the general role of this commercial a»-ea as discussed in the 'strip commercial maps. Adequate landscaping is a recommended step for ihe improvement of its appearance . 9 & 10. NW 13th Street at 16th Avenue Existing These centers are basically local convenience in nature even though they are located in a mixed commercial area. The center on the southwest corner is very complete and contains several tenants which serve a large market area. The center located on the northeast corner serves basically local convenience functions. Future These centers should be limited to local convenience sizes in order to lessen traffic congestion at this intersection as well as protect surrounding residential areas (see discussion in strip map number 3). 11 & 12. NW 13th Street at 5th Avenue Existing These small centers contain convenience grocery stores and limited service uses. They serve basically the University - oriented population and the high den- sity residential areas to the east and west. Future No further retail expansion is recommended because these centers are located on a secondary street and expansion would result in a further intrusion into a resi- dential area. These centers will continue to serve a limited residential area. 13. West University Avenue at 15th Street (Caroline Plaza) Existing This center serves a local convenience function to the University - oriented population. Off-street parking is provided but much of the business is of the walk in type. The center contains a non-prescription c*rug store, a laundromat, a barber shop and other services. Future This development should continue as a local convenience center with particular emphasis upon pedestrian traffic from the University. Thought should be given to -97- providing sufficient off-street parking as needed. Existing parking is inadequate both as to number of spaces and more particularly as to design or layout. Turning movements from University Avenue may have to be restricted in the future as they now sometimes present a serious traffic problem. 14 & 15. SW 13th Street Near 16th Avenue Existing These are local convenience centers with a limited number of tenants in an area surrounded by predominantly non-local commercial uses. These centers serve mainly the high density student - oriented apartments nearby. Future These centers should remain local convenience in nature because of the al- ready congested condition of the area near this intersection and to continue to serve this particular need of the nearby apartment residents. 16. SW 13th Street Near Williston Road Existing This development is a limited local convenience center with some reliance upon highway -oriented trade. Future Although there presently isn't enough residential development to support a shopping center, it is recommended that when sufficient residential development occurs in surrounding areas, there will be a need for either a neighborhood or community center with access to this intersection. 17. NW 6th Street Near 40th Avenue Existing This development is presently a local convenience center with a convenience grocery store as its major tenant, but includes some non-local uses. Future There is room for possible expansion if needed to serve the local needs of the area. The general appearance of the center should be improved through proper landscaping and clean-up of scattered debris and future uses should be limited to local convenience uses. -98- 18. SW 4th Avenue Near 3rd Street Existing This is a local convenience center, serving a business, medical, and high den- sity single family residential area. Future It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in character. Ex- pansion should be limited to personal service outlets or other low intensity commercial because the area is basically office and residential in character. It is not located on a major thoroughfare. 19. 23rd Boulevard at North Main Street Existing This is a local convenience center with regional auto - oriented sales nearby. Future This center should remain a local convenience center. The addition of more re- tail sales near this intersection would jeopardize its traffic carrying capacity as well as lead to the spread of commercial down a basically residential thoroughfare. Future improvements made to the center should include limiting access and improving land- scaping around the parking area. (See strip map 12) 20. 16th Avenue East of North Main Street Existing This is a local convenience center formed by two small clusters of stores. There are several non-local commercial outlets in the area with some in the center itself. Future It is recommended that this center continue to function as a local conven- ience center because any intensification by changeovers to more non-local serving uses would only add to the congestion in the area, as well as change the function of the center. -99- 21. 16th Avenue at South Main Street Existing This is a local convenience center with a pizza rortaurant adjacent to it. The businesses cater primarily to University students livinq in l!.o surrounding cpartments. Another convenience grocery and take out restaurant has opened across the slice; •. Future Future expansion at this location should be encouraged to develop as a unified shopping center with one common area of off-street parking. It is anticipated that other convenience and personal service outlets will Iceaie here, but the general character of this center should remain local, convenience in nature, because a con- centration of more intense cc.mnorc ial user will undoubtably create serious congestion on 16th Avenue and would adversely effect the aparii.iciu development in ihe area. 22. NE 8th Avenue at 15th Terrace Existing This is a newly constructed limited, local convenience center with a laundry and some personal services. Off-street parking is provided in contrast to nearby commercial outlets. Future It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature because of abutting residential uses and its location with respect to the existing thoroughfares. If the demand arises, this center could expand to provide more convenience goods and personal services. 23. East University Avenue at 14th Street Existing This is a local convenience center oriented predominantly to auto - oriented customers. There are several other uses catering to a larger market area both in the center and on adjacent frontages. There is a striking lack of landscaping at this center. Future This center should remain local convenience in nature because of its location with respect to a complicated intersection causing hazardious ingress and egress movements. - 100- East University Avenue at 24th Street Existing This local convenience center has recently opened. It contains a small grocery and laundromat. Future It is recommended that this center remain a local convenience center because of its lack of access from four directions and because of possible detrimential effects upon surrounding residential developments. The future land use plan proposes a neighborhood center on East University to serve this need for the developing resi- dential of the area. East University Avenue at 39th Street Existing This is a local convenience center with some unoccupied floor space. Future It is recommended that this center remain local convenience in nature. Utilization of the vacant floor space should be encouraged before additional struc- tures are added. Further residential development to create a better market will be necessary before additional commercial can be justified. Hawthorne Road at SE 23rd Street Existing This is a local convenience center with a limited number of outlets. Future This center should remain local convenience in nature because of the lack of available adjacent land, the limited market, and the lack of proper vehicular ac- cess required for a larger center. -101- Neighborhood Centers 27. West University Avenue at 34th Street (West Side) Existing Th is is a neighborhood center with a supermarket and drug store as its major ten- ants. It also contains a womens clothing store, take-out food store, travel agency, and a florist. Some comparison shopping is done between this center and Westgate Center, creating some cross traffic and congestion. Together, these two centers con- tain all the stores generally found in a community center. There is a new office park nearby which is developing in accordance with the adopted plan for this area, and there i apartment complex across the street. Future Because there is additional vacant land in this site and because of its location on major thoroughfares, there will probably be pressures placed on the center to de- velop in non-local uses. Since there is another planned non-local center nearby and because of the heavy traffic congestion apparent in the area, it is recommended that the remaining vacant land be developed by local commercial ucos which will cater to the adjacent apartment developments. 28. North Main Street at 10th Avenue ( SE Corner) Existing This is a neighborhood center with several "hybrid" retail outlets, such as a restaurant, and an office and other shops. The outward appearance of this center is marginal. Landscaping could be used to substantially improve the appearance. Future The demand for future expansion on this site should be limited to local conven- ience outlets to serve the new low rent housing for the elderly and other nearby high density residential areas. The non-local commercial needs for the area are adequately served by the nearby community center and the Central Business District. 29. NE 16th Avenue at 12th Street(Northgate) Existing This is a neighborhood center with adequate off-street parking and adjacent land for future expansion. This center serves primarily northeast Gainesville. It is well located with respect to service area, although not so well with respect to the street network. - 102- Future It is important that any future commercial development be part of the center versus unplanned commercial sprawl which would destroy the residential character of the surrounding area. It is recommended that this center remain a neighborhood center because of its location with respect to the street network and its setting in a well-established homogeneous residential area. Existing and future development should be well buffered by trees, shrubs, etc. to preserve the sense of unity and function of this development. Community Centers 30. West University Avenue at 34th Street (Wes tgate Center) Existing This is currently a small community center with a supermarket, restaurant, variety store, and other tenants. The site is fully developed. Future This center should remain a community center with any nearby expansion limited to offices or other low intensity use in an effort to preserve the traffic carrying capacity of this intersection. 31. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Field's Plaza ) Existing This center functions as a community center with a limited number of stores. It contains two "hybrid" discount retail outlets, plus a theatre. Much of this center's business is generated by the proximity of the Gainesville Mall across the street and vice versa. Future It is expected that no additional commercial expansion in this center will be needed, but there is vacant land available south of the theatre. Attention should be focused toward improving the landscaping in and around the parking areas and buffering any future development west of the center. 32. West University Av enue at 6th Street (Central Plaza) Existing This is a community center with a limited number of stores. The major tenants are a supermarket and a variety store. This center serves much of the older, more - 101- intensely developed core oron o r Gainesville. Future The existing site is fully developed, ond the possibility of future expansion is doubtful . It is likely that fl:e existing railroad rmcks will eventually I 9 re- moved and widening of 6th Street will ensue. This eventuality would enhance this center's accessibility end would lessen several traffic hazards. 33. North Main Street at lOHi Avenue (Gainesville Shannina, Center) Existing This is a large community shopping center with a supermarket and junior de- partment store as major tenants, however, some of the stores ere presently vacant. There is also a rather complete line of comparison shopping stores. There is, distinct absence of landscaping in and around this center. Future This center is completely developed. Parking areas should be adequately land- scaped and natural physical obstacles should be introduced to define lanes of move- ment within the vast open parking area. Major Centers 34. NW 13th Street at 23rd Boulevard (Gainesville Mal l) Existing This is a major shopping center which serves all of Alachua County and portions of surrounding counties. Intensive commercial development exists on two of the other three corners abutting the adjacent intersection. Future This site is completely developed at present, however, higher intensity develop- ment may be possible. Particular attention should be given to improving the land- scaping in and around the parking areas. In addition, another center is p'anned across the street which will place an added burden of traffic and cross traffic between the centers in this area. No further commercial expansion to the west should be allowed and buffering should be provided as needed. -104- The Proposed Commercial Land Use Plan - A Summary of Recommendations The proposed Commercial Land Use Plan as presented is both specific and general in nature. It is specific in outlining "strip commercial" areas and probable future shopping center sites in the older more developed areas of Gainesville, Much of the commercial zoning and market potential necessary for future implementation of this portion of the plan presently exists in these areas. However, in outlying areas which are presently sparsely developed and are expected to remain basically the same at least until 1980, the symbols indicate only general locations for shopping centers needed to adequately serve the population when these areas are developed. Strip Commercial Areas The presence of Strip Commercial development in cities is a result ofthe urbani- zation process and often reflects the need in prior years for pedestrian orienred commercial areas near residential sections. Since the rapid rise in automobile usage and the resultant urban sprawl these strip developments have tended to follow the major arteries and serve as locations for auto oriented activities. Strip locations will continue to appeal to uses catering to impulse shopping from passerby traffic, to uses that cannot afford center locations and to those desiring to locate near the homes of customers. In emphasis, although present strip commercial developments have several functional, design, and aesthetic drawbacks, the incorporation of the following policies should lessen the negative impact strip commercial development often has upon the community. 1. Encourage the grouping of similar and compatible uses in specific areas to enhance comparison shopping and convenience. The grouping of automobile sales and service along North Main Street is an example. 2. Encouragement of a service drive for access to "strip" businesses to lessen direct access points onto major thoroughfares via curb cuts. 3. Encourage the utilization of vacant parcels of land in existing commercial areas in deference to the needless opening up of new areas to strip commercial. 4. Encouragement of more restrictive sign controls not only in strip areas but also in shopping centers. Seventeen major strip areas have previously been reviewed and existing and proposed land uses for each area were depicted. The proposed land use plan for each area is a result of "rounding off" these areas with commercial development and buffering stepping down and cutting back. The total additional commercial acreage as proposed in these areas is about 163 acres . Examination of Table 6 on page 15 indicates that there should be a demand for an additional 83 acres in strip commercial areas by iy80. The figure of 83 acres was based on the assumption that all additional automotive and mis- cellaneous (lumber building material, farm equipment, commercial recreation, and ^ hotels and motels) commercial businesses would locate in strip areas. In addition, it -105- was felt that approximately 70 percent of eating and drinking establishments and 50 per- cent of furniture and appliance stores would continue to locate in these areas. Because of the lack of standards for dollar sales per square foot for commercial reaction businesses and hotels and motels, and because of the uncertainties involved in projecting the effects of tourism locally, no projections of land use needs for these business e s were made or indicated in Table 6 on page 15 . \f is therefore believed that the projection of additional strip commercial land needs by 1980 is slightly conservative. In addition to the major strip commercial areas examined previously, there are approximately 250 acres of commercial land use provided at the three existing inter- changes with 1-75 and the proposed interchange at Archer Road. The three interchanges presently have approximately 525 acres of commercial zoning abutting them and strung out along the major thoroughfares away from the interchanges. It is recommended that the approximate 1000 feet of depth of zoning along the thoroughfares be cut back to about 600 feet. It is also recommended that the amount of commercial frontage along the thoroughfares be cut back to alleviate much of the potential for strip commercial de- velopments which create severe circulation problems. Thus, the Plan provides for roughly twice as much land (163 acres) for commercial areas than is needed by 1980 (83 acres). In addition approximately 250 acres of commer- cial land use has been provided at the 1-75 interchanges. An overall sound development policy would dictate that no additional new areas be "opened up" to strip commercial development until the older areas are fully utilized. Shopping Centers As described previously, a properly designed shopping center can be an attractive and convenient facility to serve a neighborhood. Several of the policies for the future development of strip commercial areas as stated above are characteristic of shopping cen- ter developments. That is, there is a grouping of similar uses providing convenient com- parison shopping and limited ingress and egress points onto major thoroughfares. As is the case with many of the strip commercial areas, several of the potential sites for shopping centers by 1980 have already been appropriately zoned. Shaded sym- bols have thus been shown on these proposed specific areas. Those sites for new shopping centers are based primarily upon past and present growth trends in apartments, single family residences, and mobile homes which stimulate new commercial growth. Proposed general locations for shopping centers after 1980 are depicted by unshaded symbols. Shopping Centers Needed by 1980 No previous mention has been made of a phenomenon now occurring across the nation. This is the rapid spread of the various "local convenience" grocery stores * Planning Division estimate -106- which are generally open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m., seven days a week. There are presently about forty-five of these convenience grocery stores in the Gainesville Urban Area. Review of national statistics and an interview with the regional office of a convenience grocery store chain has led to the belief ihat these stores now ac- count for approximately 17 percent of food sales in the Urban Area or about 5„6 million dollars annually in 1967 (see Table 4 on page 12 ) |t ; s believed that the importance of these convenience stores will continue during the planning period. It is likely that approximately 30 additional convenience stores will be supported by their share of the expected annual increase in dollars available for food by 1980. Existing stores have located either by themselves or in many instances have satellite tenants such as a laundromat or liquor store included to form a Local Convenience Center. No effort has been made to locate such centers in the Preliminary Com- mercial Land Use Plan . The projected number of additional Neighborhood Centers needed by 1980 is based upon the expected annual increase in dollar sales for food In the Urban Area (see Table 6 on page 15 ). It must be emphasized that these are only rough projections. Ultimate development should be based upon demand as verified through a market analysis. By subtracting the dollar sales increase allocated to convenience grocery stores by 1980, supermarkets are expected to capture an additional $22, 1 10,000 annually by 1980„ This would mean that an additional eleven (11) supermarkets could be supported by the expected annual increase in food dollars available between now and 1980 as calculated below. Additional food dollars available $22,110,000 12 Average annual dollar sales per square foot of GLA $ 96 Additional square feet of GLA: $22,110,000 = 231,500 sq.ft. $96 / sq.ft. 12 Average GLA of supermarkets: » 21 ,600 sq.ft. Store Projected number of new supermarkets : 23 1 , 500 sq . f t . = . .10.72 stores 21,600 sq. ft/store At present there are twelve supermarkets in the Urban Area representing five major supermarket chains. Nine (9) of these supermarkets are located in planned shopping centers. It is assumed that all additional supermarkets will locate in either planned neighborhood or community centers because the success of supermarkets is enhanced by the close proximity of other stores. The success of supermarkets in large regional or major centers, however, has waned because most people tend to do the majority of their grocery shopping at either neighborhood or community centers while depending upon more distant major centers for comparison shopping for durable goods. -107- The Plan indicates, using shaded symbols, proposed locations for seven (7) additional neighborhood centers, three (3) additional community centers, and one (1) additional major center possibly needed by the end of the planning period to 1980. It must be emphasized that these general locations are only preliminary in that they are based upon an anticipated growth pattern during the next decade. It is also appropriate to point out that any actual developments should follow the locational and design criteria and meet market analysis requirements as pre- viously stated. Neighborhood Centers Planned neighborhood centers should provide the basic weekly convenience needs of the surrounding residential areas (groceries, drugs, barber shop, etc.). As such, the following locations have been designated as potential sites for new neighborhood centers by 1980. 1. S.W. Archer Road West of 1-75 It is recommended that a neighborhood center be located in this pre- dominatly mobile home area when the need exists and that adequate consideration be given to major transportation links from all four directions rather than just clong the Archer Road. Under no cir- cumstances should non-center businesses be introduced into this mobile home area inflicting the aforementioned strip commercial "deseases" upon this area. 2. S.W. Archer Road at S.W. 34th Street When sufficient single family and residential growth occurs around this intersection (as determined by a market analysis) it is recom- mended that a neighborhood shopping center be designed and devel- oped in such a way as to not overly congest f-his intersection. Simi- larly, any strip commercial development near this intersection should be prohibited. 3. N.W. 43rd Street at 16 Boulevard When sufficient community growth occurs around this intersection it is recommended that a planned neighborhood center be developed (see discussion in section on Planned Shopping Centers). 4. N.W. 34th Street Extended It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs in this area, the present commercial development should be expanded to include a supermarket and other tenants normally found in a neighborhood center (see discussion in section on Planned Shopping Centers). -108- 5. N.W. 39th Avenue at N.E. 15th Street The likely residential development of the areas surrounding this inter- section should increase the demand for commercial uses near this intersection. It is recommended that when such a demand occurs it be fulfilled by a neighborhood level shopping center. 6. S . E . 1 5th Street at S . E . 8th Avenue Residential development presently surrounds this intersection. It is recommended that a neighborhood level shopping center be developed on the land currently zoned for a shopping center to serve these residential areas. 7. S. E . Hawthorne Road at S. E . 43rd Street It is recommended that when sufficient residential growth occurs in this area to support a neighborhood center that it be developed as such. A new junior - senior high school in this area may stimulate enough additional residential growth to support a shopping center during the planning period. Community Centers Planned community centers should provide for both the basic weekly convenience needs of the population and some of the comparison needs. These centers should meet all the design and locational requirements discussed previously. The following locations have been designated as potential sites for new neighborhood centers by 1980. 1 . W. University Avenue at State Road 329 (W 43rd Street) This community center is presently in the planning stages and is to be developed in several phases. Its location so near the Westgate Shopping Center complex may create several problems of traffic congestion unless adequate signalization and ingress and egress movements are provided. Under no circumstances should strip commercial activities be allowed to develop along the West University Avenue frontages in this area. 2. N.W. 13th Street Opposite the Gainesville Mall This community center is also currently in the planning stages. Additional signalization on N. W. 13th Street will likely be required to handle anticipated cross traffic between this center and the Gainesville Mall. This center, together with the Mall and Fields Plaza, places a tremendous potential for auto congestion and a demand for street improvements in and around the area. - 109- 3. S.W. 13th Street at S.W. Williston Road It is recommended that by 1980 a community center be constructed near this intersection, but only after a thorough market analysis. Because of the tremendous recent development ot apartment complexes and single family dwellings in this southern area of Gainesville, it is believed the greatest potential for shopping center development presently lies near this general location. If, however, commercial development occurs in the Biven's Arm area along S.W. 13th Street and^r the major apartment and single family development trend in the South- west Area moves farther west from the S.W. 13th Street area, two other sites seem logical alternatives. These two sites are: (1) Near the intersection of S.W. Williston Road and I -75; and (2) on the Archer Road west of 1-75. However, only two (2) of these three (3) possible sites will ultimately be needed sometime after 1980. Major Centers Major centers should provide a wide range of comparison goods in order to serve a large regional trade area. In the Gainesville Urban Area such a center would serve all of Alachua County and portions of surrounding counties. The Gainesville Mall is the only existing planned Major Center. The Downtown Gainesville area, although not a planned shopping center per se, functions as a major commercial attraction. Therefore, projections for additional Major Centers are based upon the assumption that Downtown will continue to function as a major commercial attraction. Only one(l Additional planned major center is recommended by 1980. Because of the existing commercial developments and the current planned development of two (2) additional community centers, it is believed that another major center may possibly be needed by 1980 or near the end of the planning period. The recommended location is near the intersection of the recently improved Newberry Road and 1-75. This location, with respect to the transportation system, will provide excellent access to the center from all population areas in the region. This location is also distant enough from the major existing areas of comparison shopping such that it will not detract significantly from their trade areas. A summary of the approximate allocation of acreage for new shopping centers by 1980 is provided below. -110- Additional Shopping Center by 1980 Type of Center Number of new centers Acres Local Convenience na 30 Neighborhood 7 28 Community 3 30 Major 1 35 Total TT 723 As this table indicates 123 acres has been provided in the plan for shopping centers by 1980. This is the amount estimated to be needed in the market analysis presented earlier. A grand total of approximately 635 acres of commercial are recommended in the land use plan for 1980. Again, this amount far exceeds what is expected to be used, but is a result of adjusting to what is now zoned, "rounding off" strip areas, and providing for tourist facilities at the freeway interchanges. It also inci udes approxirra tely 90 acres added in the North Main Street area after the discussion of strip areas in this report was completed, plus a few additional miscellaneous parcels not mentioned previously. Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 All other symbols on the preliminary Commercial Land Use Plan refer to possible shopping centers after 1980. The locations shown are not meant to be rigid or specific, but only general indications of the need in a given area if full development is accomplished, with no major divergences from present growth trends. Two factors must be kept in mind in evaluating the plan in terms of these Centers. First, the plan assumes that development of commercial in the long range future will be on a more planned, orderly basis than today, which means primarily the growth of shopping centers as opposed to scattered parcel development. The difference can be significant. For example, only three existing centers were classified as neighborhood while seven were recommended for 1980. This does not mean there is deficit in the types of activities found in such centers now, only that the activities are now located elsewhere. Secondly, the number of centers were derived on the basis of the total hold- ing capacity for the Urban area as a whole and then distributed on the basis of assumed development patterns and densities. Different directions of growth, shifts in urban den- sities or composition of the population would of course affect the pattern of centers as shown. In addition, the number of centers are based on a numerical ratio of persons per center, and not on a more precise economic standard. They can only be considered as a rough indication as a result. Local Convenience Centers As was described earlier, the local convenience grocery store chains and satellite uses have made significant inroads in Gainesville and many other communities. It is felt that these convenience commercial outlets will continue to cater to the needs and demands of a mobile society . Therefore, the projected land needs for these types of commercial uses after 1980 have been based upon the same growth rate as projected for these uses before 1980. The projected increase in land use for these com- mercial establishments between 1970 and 1980 is 30 acres. This is the period in which the Urban Area population is projected to increase by approximately 40,000 persons. Between 1980 and whatever year full development occurs in the Area, approximately 205,000 additional persons will be housed in the Urban Area or about five (5) times as many more additional persons as projected to be added to the Urban Area population during the 1970-80 decade. Assuming a continued demand for these stores approxi- mately 150 additional acres (5 x 30 acres) will be required for these Local Conveni- ence outlets after 1980. Again, no attempt has been made to locate these centers on the Land Use Plan. Neighborhood Centers Within the standards for neighborhood shopping centers set forth earlier, it is ex- pected that a neighborhood center, such as the existing Northgate shopping center, will be supported by approximately 6,000 residents (See Table 13). The additional popu- lation projected for the Urban Area after 1980 is approximately 205,000 persons. There- fore, thirty-three (33) additional neighborhood centers could be built in conjunction with the population needs after 1980, utilizing approximately 130 acres. The approxi- mate number of these centers are shown by planning district based upon their individual population holding capacities. Community Centers As indicated in Table 13, "Shopping Center Standards", the Community Center requires a minimum of 5,000 families to support it. It is projected that approximately nine (9) additional Community Centers will be required after 1980, utilizing about 90 acres. This would generally provide an average of 25,000 persons per Community Center, which is significantly above the minimum standard stated above but more in keeping with national average for larger cities. These centers have been shown in approximate loca- tions to serve the anticipated commercial needs when the surrounding areas are developed residential ly. Regional Centers In the long range commercial development plan for the Gaire wille Urban Area, the Downtown Area and the Gainesville Mall area must be considered as regional com- mercial complexes. As was indicated in the previous section of commercial projections to 1980, it is anticipated that a third regional center would best be located in the vicin- ity of intersection of Newberry Road (SR ^26) and highway 1-75. This center is expected to be feasible during or slightly after 1980 if urban growth continues in this northwestly area. With a minimum support of 100,000 persons per regional center, it is expected that three (3) large regional complexes will be all that it needed to serve the residents of the Gainesville Urban Area. Thirty- five (35) acres were allotted for this third re- gional center in the projection for shopping center land needs before 1980. -112- Additional Shopping Centers After 1980 Type of Center Number of new centers Acres Local Convenience n/a 150 Neighborhood 33 130 Community 9 90 Major Total 42 370 Concl usions Roughly 1,000 acres of commercial land, in addition to that already developed, is recommended in the plan. The amount is imprecise because the size of shopping centers varies and the plan is generalized to a large extent. This amount will far exceed what will likely ever be developed. In fact the trend in commercial devel- opment has been to concentrate and economize on land usage through shopping cen- ters, especially in areas developed in the last decade. It is likely that this trend will predominate in the Gainesville Urban Area where the largest portion of ur- banized development is yet to come. -113- BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 . Alachua County, Tax Assessor, Special Computer Print Out, 1968. 2. Applied Parking Techniques, Parking Progress, Bulletin^ 121, 1968. 3. Boyd, David E., The Impact of the Office Worker on Downtown Gainesville, Florida, a thesis presented to the Graduate Council of the University of Florida, August, 1966. 4. City of Gainesvil le, Department of Community Development, Planning Division Reports: a. Planning Unit Study , July, 1968. b Enrollments and Employment, University of Florida and Santa Fe Junior College, September, 1967. c. Population Study, January, 1968. d. Land Use Analysis, January, 1969. e. "Survey of Out-of-Town Shoppint", April, 1967. f. Economic Base Study, January, 1969. g. Downtown Gainesville, 1963. 5. National Industrial Conference Board, Expenditure Patterns of the American Family, based on U. S. Department of Labor Statistics, 1965. 6. Sales Management, Survey of Buying Power, June, 1968 7. State of Florida, 1967 Florida Tourist Study. 8. United States Bureau of Labor Statistics for the Southern Region. 9. University of Florida, Bureau of Business and Economic Research, Florida Abstract Book, 1967. 10. University of Florida, Student Income and Expenditures, May, 1967. 11. Urban Land Institute, The Community Builders Handbook, 1968. 12. Urban Land Institute, Parking Requirements for Shopping Centers, Techinical Bulletin, 5C, 1968.